Why early grooming is the right start?

A well-groomed pooch is a pet parent’s delight. It takes time, love and attention to give your pooch a pawfect look. Here’s how to make your pet a showstopper every day.


Sitara with Whisky

Sitara with Whisky

Start early: Accustom your puppy to brushing and physical examination (ears, nails, paw pads, teeth, etc) so that they get used to the process of grooming.
Dry bath: Dry bath is recommended for young puppies.
Tooth care: Accustom your dog to brushing teeth. Take half teaspoon dog toothpaste in your finger and move your finger alongside their teeth. Once they get used to this use a toothbrush.
Nail care: Clip the nails with care as dog’s nails have ‘the quick’ which has a nerve. If you clip ‘the quick’ the nail will bleed and the dog will experience pain. So, get it safely done by a vet or a groomer.
Ear care: Dog’s ears can get infected easily, especially the droopy ears as there is less room for air to enter their ear canal. Regular checking is recommended to avoid complications.
Brushing – a must: Brushing is recommended regularly for long-coated dogs to avoid matt or tangles and at least twice a week for small/medium-coated breeds.
Don’t be hard on his skin: Ensure that you do not press the brush too hard on the skin that could scrape the skin.
Removing mats: Mat is painful for your dog. Work on small portions at a time while de-matting. Hold the skin with one hand and insert the end of the comb into the mat with your other hand and slowly try to remove the mat. After de-matting, comb thoroughly. If mat is too close to the skin, try cutting it out with a scissor.
Ready for grooming: If your dog gets restless, it might be wise to take him for a walk or exercise before brushing, bathing, trimming or nail clipping. It will lessen any excess energy and make it easier to accomplish the task.
Hair clipping: Take your dog to a groomer for the pawfect look. Untitled-11
Get ready for bath: Prevent water from entering the ear canal.
Warm bath: Bathe your dog with luke warm water, always check the warmth on the back of your palm.
Bathing tips: Use only dog shampoo to bathe your dog. First bathe the body and shampoo the head at last with a tearless shampoo. Rinse well to avoid skin irritation.
Drying dos: Towel dry the head and ears first. Then towel dry the body. Take dry cotton and dry clean the ears. Use a pet dryer to dry the coat. Be careful of the ears. Keep a check of the temperature of the dryer.
Paw care: Clipping off hair from the under paw pads will prevent unwanted plants, twigs, etc from getting stuck.
It’s always wise to start grooming and nail clipping when your dog is a puppy. It will get him accustomed to the process and make it easier on everyone in ensuing years. Introducing grown up dogs to home grooming is usually a greater challenge.


(Sitara Samnotra runs Barkers Den, a boutique, spa and escape for pooches in Jammu.)

Steps to make your pooch matt-free


Secret revealed: Your dog loves massage too!

If you’ve ever experienced a really good massage and felt wonderful about it, then it’s no surprise that your dog is going to love it too!


Pet massage is much more than petting. It manipulates skin and muscles by using specific techniques to promote healing, increase blood flow and oxygen to tissues, reduce pain and swelling and create overall well being for our canine companions.


Shweta Munjal

Shweta Munjal

Benefits of massage

  • Promotes healthy skin and coat.
  • Eases and calms a nervous, restless and anxious dog.
  • Improves overall blood circulation.
  • Helps with identification of any health problems including soreness, swelling or other pain in the body.
  • Helps in improving and building stronger immune system.
  • Improves performance for an athletic canine.
  • Helps in building stronger and toned muscles.
  • Acts as a great warm up and prevents any injury.
  • Relieves tension, pain and discomfort.
  • Extremely helpful in relieving pain caused by arthritis and hip dysplasia.
  • Opens blood vessels, which allow blood to flow freely carrying oxygen to the cells and disposing of waste and by-products.
  • Enhances focus, concentration and alertness.
  • Relieves age-related problems.
  • Acts as a passive form of exercise for inactive dogs, dogs recovering from any illness and older dogs.

When to do a massage?
Massage should always be a relaxing and gentle activity. Before beginning, make sure your dog is in a comfortable and quiet place. A table, the floor or even on the couch are good places. The area should be clean and must have plenty of fresh water available.
Your TV viewing time can be a great time to give your pet a massage. Not only is this relaxing and calming for you and your pet, but it’s also an easy way to get to grooming your pet including brushing, combing, teeth cleaning as well as giving your pet an all over health check.


Massage techniques
Effleurage – Effleurage includes gliding your hands over the dog’s body more like gentle petting, but with the intention of identifying any oddities. This type of massage is beneficial in warming up tissues and increasing blood flow. While stroking, check for areas of heat, cold, inflammation, restricted movement and resistance.
Petrissage – This type of massage is similar to kneading the dough. It involves twisting, rolling, kneading and squeezing the skin improving blood circulation, stimulating the removal of toxins and
releasing spasms.
Laying on of hands – This technique is more like light gentle petting and stroking without applying any kind of pressure. It can also be described as a gentle touch with intention of comforting the dog. The dog suffering from hip dysplasia and arthritis require an extremely gentle and careful touch. We must refrain from any techniques that involve any kind of pressure. The best way to conform would be to gently ‘lay on hands’ or in other words, stroke or pet the dog gently on affected area.
Scratching – Scratching is something that all dogs do naturally. It helps in stimulating the overall systems of the dog’s body including circulatory, cardiovascular, neurological and autoimmune systems. It is especially wonderful for older dogs.


Word of caution

  • Do not press too hard while massaging your dog. The purpose of the massage is relaxation and not therapy, so avoid going too deep into the tissues as you may end up hurting your pet. Try and keep the massage as gentle and relaxing as possible.
  • Make a note of any spots where you feel soreness, swelling or anything odd to be addressed accordingly. Massage these areas with extreme care.
  • If you feel your pet shows discomfort or even slight aggression at any point, stop the process immediately. Instead investigate the reason and consult the vet at the earliest.


Teach your fingertips to know your pet
Teaching yourself to know your pet’s body is a great way to check for any abnormalities that she may be experiencing. This can be achieved by giving a gentle massage to your pet.
Run your fingers through your pet’s body and help her relax first. Then, begin massaging the head to the shoulders, back, abdomen, and all over your pet’s body. While doing so, check for any sores, lumps, ticks or any muscle strain. Seek the help of a vet at the earliest to address these issues.


Is your pet resisting?

Be patient with your pet as introducing the process of massage may take some time. Your pet may resist initially if she’s never had a massage before but will soon give in to the wonders and joys of a relaxing massage. If the pet seems to be extremely uneasy, stop the process immediately. You can resume the process another day and see if your dog relaxes a little more under your hands. Learn to identify the signs of discomfort which include:

  • Growling or snarling.
  • Flinching or yelping.
  • Nipping.
  • Flattened ears.
  • Tensing or holding of breath.
  • Rolling eyes.
  • If there are signs of an open wound, do not massage the area.
  • If your dog has had a recent surgery, consult your veterinarian first and watch your dog for signs of pain or discomfort.
  • If there are bites and skin infections, stop the massage.
  • If your dog has skin problems like ringworms, massage could cause it to spread.

Massaging your dog is an excellent way to spend time with her, also it gives you and your dog abundant bonding time.
(Shweta Munjal is professional pet groomer at Prince of Tails – Pet Grooming Salon, Bengaluru).

Step-by-step guide to brush your pooch’s teeth

Brushing your pooch’s teeth everyday is ideal, but even three days a week is sufficient.  Make it a routine and brush his teeth when he is calm and relaxed.

Step 1: Take a dual end toothbrush. Untitled-6
Step 2: Use dog toothpaste and put a small quantity on the brush.
Step 3: Sit in front or beside your dog  for better reach.
Step 4: Lift his upper lip and approach his teeth with the brush at a 45 degree angle.
Step 5: Use a circular motion to brush his premolars and molars.
Step 6: Repeat the procedure with incisors and canine teeth.
Step 7: Assure him during the process and give him a treat once the brushing is over.

(Aneesha Rai runs DAWGZ Grooming & More, a one-stop shop for toys, treats and spa treatments for dogs, at Mumbai)         

BOW-WOW! shampoo me right

Dr Munmun De

Dr Munmun De

Every dog needs a good bath at regular intervals. Be it for grooming purposes or for health, the right shampoo is the key to a beautiful, healthy coat of fur.
Just as humans have shampoos that target different scalp and hair problems, your pooch also needs the right shampoo. But remember, never use a human shampoo on your dog’s coat as it contains chemicals that can be harsh on dog’s skin and may increase irritation of the already affected areas. The anatomy of the skin of dogs is different hence the chemicals which are soothing to us in our human shampoo may not be comfortable/suiting the dogs.

Handling dandruff…
One of the common problems faced by dogs is dandruff. Similar to human dandruff, it is dead skin that flakes off and stays on the coat. This dead skin results in itching, which can start a vicious cycle of more dandruff and thus, increased itching. Fortunately, anti-dandruff pet shampoos are widely available. But the first step is to rule out any other medical conditions that may be causing the dandruff – such as fleas, allergies, or eczema – because these require specific medication.
Why it occurs? Dandruff is usually experienced by young adults and continues into middle age. Dry skin is a frequent reason for itching and flaking skin. This can lead to dandruff. Another common cause is seborrheic dermatitis or oily scalp with skin irritation. The condition can be associated with oily skin that is covered with white or yellowish coating. Seborrheic dermatitis also affects parts of the body that contain several oil glands, including the nose, behind the ears, below the testes, the paws, and even the armpits.
Right nutrition: A diet that lacks adequate amounts of iron, zinc and vitamin B, encourages the formation of dandruff. So, pet parents should ensure that their dogs eat enough lean red meat, greens or the correct readymade pet food that gives the best possible nutrition.
Shampoo – how often? How often you shampoo your dog can also affect the formation of dandruff. Also a daily bath may lead to fungal problem as dogs don’t have sweat glands and unlike humans or horse or cattle, dogs should not undergo daily bath. Thus, it is advisable to ask your vet how often is just right. In most cases, vets recommend a three week to one month’s interval between baths. If there are medical conditions, then depending on the kind of skin problem, long-haired breed or short-haired breed and climatic condition the frequency of bath should be decided or the coat gets excessively dirty, the shampoo may be required sooner.
Other scalp problems…
In addition to dandruff woes, pet parents may face malassezia fungus. Malasseziapachydermatis is yeast found on the skin and ears of dogs. The yeast is actually a normal feature of these areas, but an abnormal overgrowth may cause dermatitis, or inflammation of the skin. The growth cannot be controlled as this fungus gets its food from the oil that comes out of hair follicles. This irritates the coat and makes skin cells grow. As a result, the excess dead skin cells begin to fall off, combined with oil from the hair (fur).
The exact causes behind this disease are not known, but it has been linked to allergy, seborrhoea, congenital and hormonal factors. Although malassezia fungus can affect any dog, certain breeds are predisposed to it. These include Poodles, Basset Hounds, West Highland White Terriers, Cocker Spaniels and Dachshunds.
Types of shampoos…
Pet shampoos can be identified according to its contents.

  • Pyrithione zinc shampoo: This shampoo contains zinc pyrithione, which consists of antibacterial and antifungal agents. Shampoo in this category is suited for the coat containing fungus that can lead to dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis formation.
  • Tar-based shampoo: These shampoos contain coal tar. Coal tar comes from the coal manufacturing process and can help overcome dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis by slowing down cell death and the exfoliation of skin.
  • Shampoo containing salicylic acid: This kind of shampoo helps remove layers of dandruff, but can dry the coat. Using a conditioner for dogs after the shampoo is advisable.
  • Ketoconazole shampoo: Ketoconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that may work when other shampoos have failed.

Check with your vet to make sure you’re using a suitable shampoo for your dog. If the condition of your pet’s coat doesn’t change for the better after a couple of shampoo sessions, contact your vet. If you see the condition suddenly getting worse after one shampoo, call your vet immediately. In short, shampoo them right.
(With inputs from Dr Munmun De, BVSc and AH (Gold Medalist), MVSc, PhD Scholar-Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata.)

Bath me Beautiful!

Here’s step by step guide to bath you pooch…


Aneesha Rai & Vaishali


7 Steps for the perfect groomed look

Grooming your dog is one of the best ways to strengthen the bond of love that you share with your pet. There are certain things that should be kept in mind before you begin with such sessions so that it becomes a pleasurable experience for both of you.

Simple at home tips for grooming your pooch


1 Planning…

Divyang Adawadkar
  • Maintain a grooming schedule for your pet so that you can plan out your time in advance and make all the necessary arrangements needed prior to grooming.
  • Select a proper range of accessories (viz. hair brush/comb, nail clippers, shampoo, etc.) for grooming your dog and this will depend upon the kind of breed.
  • If you are beginner with grooming sessions, start with shorter duration i.e. 10 – 15 min. Grooming particularly includes brushing/combing and bathing, one can first beginwith combing sessions and then slowly switch tobathing sessions for your pet.

2 Brushing…

  • Different breeds have different grooming needs. For healthy skin and coat, dogs should be brushed at least thrice a week to remove the dead hair, tangles and mats. A slicker-style brush is best suited for this.
  • A slicker brush should not be pressed too hard else it will scrape the skin and hurt your dog.
  • Brush or comb your dog against the lay of the coat, this will give the coat a fluffy look.
  • Olive oil can be used on matted hair for easy combing.

3 Paw care…

  • You can train your dog for nail clipping by giving him a gentle massage on the paws and then accustom him to the nail clipper. Be careful that you don’t clip off ‘the quick’ that is present in the nail as it has a nerve inside it and if cut, it can cause bleeding and pain.
  • ‘The quick’ is easily visible in pink nails but difficult in dark nails so dark coloured nails should be given several small cuts to reduce the chance of cutting into ‘the quick’.
  • A small piece of sand paper can be used to file the nails of your dog.
  • The hair between the paws should be trimmed to prevent insertion of ticks and fleas or fungal growth due to moist environment.

4 Bathing…

  • Your dog can be bathed once a fortnight to once in a month depending upon his daily activities and his exposure to dirt and dust and the season.
  • If you are using a bath tub, place a bath mat made of rubber in the tub to keep your pooch from slipping and sliding.
  • Select a proper dog shampoo depending upon the nature of the coat and skin condition of your dog; in general, a mild shampoo should be used to bath your dog. Make sure that the shampoo does not enter the eyes, ears or nose.
  • Before bathing, brush your dog to remove any dead hair or mats.
  • For drying your dog, keep the blow dryer on cool setting so that there will be less of a chance for your dog’s hair and skin to dry out.
  • Keep your dog indoor for few hours till he is completely dry after a bath, else he may go and roll in dirt to get his scent back.
  • If your dog is naughty or resist from taking a bath, make sure you take him for a long walk before you give him a bath to drain out the energy and reduce his stress level.

5 Ear care…

  • To clean your dog’s ears, apply some ear cleaning solution to a cotton ball and simply wipe dirt and wax away from the inner ear. Be very gentle while cleaning the ears and do not insert the cotton ball too deep inside the ears.
  • Dogs with droopy ears or long hair should be checked weekly as they are more susceptible to fungus, waxy ears and ear mites.

6 Coat care…

  • For German Shepherd, Cocker Spaniel and other such breeds with thick coat, the coat can be trimmed in different lengths to give them a relief in summer. This also avoids the growth of ticks and fleas.
  • A healthy coat is a sign of good health for your dog. Excessive shedding or bald patches could be signs of ill health. Regular grooming helps you to look for early signs of diseases.
  • Never use hair colours or dyes on your dog, they are meant for human use as they can cause skin irritation which can lead to serious health problems in dogs.

7 Extra care…

  • For breeds like Pugs who have facial wrinkles or folds, in order to prevent bacterial growth in the areas inside these folds, use damp cotton to clean off the dirt.
  • Dogs with very long hair, like St Bernard and Golden Retriever, need trimming of hair in between the legs known as hock.
  • Puppies and at times even adult dogs tend to become playful during grooming, to keep them engaged keep their favourite toys and treats handy.

Last but not the least, give your pet lot of love (hugs and kisses) for being patient once you have given him an enjoyable grooming experience!
(Divyang Adawadkar runs PET INN, a one-stop destination for all your pet’s needs (especially for dogs and cats), be it grooming, hostel facilities, veterinary advice or pet food and accessories in Ahmedabad).

Dog Grooming

Why do Dogs drool?

Dogs drool, certain breeds of dogs drool more. What causes excessive drooling? How can it be controlled? Let’s see how.

Kritika Manchanda

Kritika Manchanda

Why dogs drool?
Dog’s salivary glands form saliva in the mouth. The saliva keeps getting collected in their cheek pools and when they shake their head, we all know the consequences. This aids in digestion and lubricates the dog’s food as well. Other than this, the saliva also helps your pooch cool down and keeps oral tissues and teeth under protection. Till a limit, drooling is normal and as pet parents you should accept it, but the problem is when that drooling goes beyond control. Excessive drooling is also known as hyper-salivation. Another thing that needs to be highlighted is that drooling is not just about too much saliva; it is also the inability of the canine to hold it in the mouth or to swallow it.
Drool‘y’ breeds: There are certain breeds who drool more than the others – the reason being the face structure. The common breeds who drool excessively are:

  • St Bernard
  • Bloodhounds
  • Basset Hounds
  • Newfoundland
  • Mastiffs
  • Great Dane
  • Boxer
  • Bulldog
  • Shar Pei
  • Bull Mastiff

It is quite normal for these breeds to drool, all you need to do as a responsible pet parent is to keep their towel handy. One must realise that dealing with drool is a part of being parents to these breeds and not much can be done.
What causes excessive drool?
There can be various causes for hyper-salivation in dogs.
Psychological trigger: Saliva production increases when the nervous system is triggered. A psychological trigger like fear, anxiety and stress may lead to excessive drooling. After drinking or rather lapping water, your pet might drool, which is completely normal. Don’t be surprised if your pet is drooling too much even when he is happy because happiness is also considered a trigger. The sight of treats or their favourite food and motion sickness are some other major causes. It is also possible that hyper-salivation is a reaction to an abscess, periodontal diseases, nausea or mouth pain.
Foreign objects: Another strong reason at which a dog may drool excessively is the presence of a foreign object. There might be a possibility that a foreign object like piece of plastic, fabric or a wrapper may be embedded in your pet’s gums, stuck in between his teeth or the roof of the mouth. It can cause irritation that can lead to excessive drooling and in serious cases, the dog may also get injured.
Infections or injuries: The salivary glands can be injured during a fight and as a result, the damaged gland would keep leaking saliva and other fluid in the neighbouring tissues. Other cause can be bacterial infection. But keep in mind that there is always some foul odour in an infection. The best way to keep a tab on this is to regularly brush your pet’s teeth with pet toothpaste.
Summer time: Harsh summers can be painful for our furry companions. Sudden excessive drooling during summers can be a sign of heat stroke. In addition to hyper-salivation, the dog might look tired and would be panting. In such case, you should take your pet to a cooler place and give some cool water. Consult your vet as well.
Irritants: There is a possibility that your pet could have chewed something that was not supposed to be chewed and this can result in mouth irritation. Chewing some plant, wire, piece of toxic plastic, etc. can be dangerous; thus always keep an eye on what your pet is taking into his mouth. You can also get your pet some chewy bones. This would help in two ways. One, it would control plaque, tartar build up and keep dental problems away and two, they would be occupied and would not look for things here and there.
How to control excessive drooling?
Prevention is always better than cure. With regular care and keeping a watch on the symptoms, you can avoid the problem of excessive drooling. If your pet has been drooling excessively and is acting in an irritable manner, it can be a symptom of rabies. The other two diseases associated closely with excessive drooling are pseudo rabies and distemper. Get in touch with your vet immediately if you suspect anything unusual in your dog’s behaviour.
There can be chances that the hyper-salivation may be the result of a neurological problem – the nerves of the mouth not functioning properly or blockage in the oesophagus. The vet would be the best judge to enlighten you with the correct diagnosis and the remedy.

Learn all about Paw Protection

A dog’s paws are very sturdy but they still need some tender love and care! Here are a few cares to keep your pooch’s paws healthy.

Dog Grooming

Lokashi with Copper

Paws are a very essential part of a dog’s body as dogs are digitigrade animals, this means that the weight bearing part of their limbs is their paws. The paw consists of the foot pad or paw pad and nails or claws. The paw pads act as an insulator from extremely cold weather, they act as a cushion and prevent the joints and bones from shock as they walk, and also protect the deep tissues within the paw. The paw pad is the toughest region of canine skin and provides friction as the dog walks. Dogs are known to perspire through their paw pads. They also have scent glands located at the bottom of their feet so they can be sensed by other dogs.  The claws or nails help the dog to dig and provide stability to the feet. Dogs are constantly running, jumping, walking and playing hence their paws are prone to damage, infection and injuries.
Here are a few measures to ensure you keep your pooches’ paws protected and well-care:
Start early: A lot of dogs are very sensitive when it comes to touching their paws or cutting their nails. It is essential to de-sensitise the paws from the beginning to ensure that they can be well taken care of.
Nail care: It is very important to take proper care of your dog’s nails. Always ensure they are properly trimmed and filed. Do not forget to attend to the dew claw. A dew claw is the 5th digit on a dog’s foot, which does not come in contact with the ground. It is advisable to get the nails trimmed from a professional, as over cutting may lead the quick (bundle of nerve and blood vessel in the nail) to rupture and make the nail bleed.
Hair in and around the paw: It is essential to trim the hair from a dog’s paw pad. While they walk, all the dirt collects in the under pad hair and causes unwanted matting of the hair. Also ticks collect and cause discomfort to the dog. Once the extra hair is trimmed, especially for long haired breeds, it is easy to keep the paw pad clean and pest and matt free.
Moisturise: On a weekly basis ensure you moisturisze your pet’s foot pad in order to repair and restore vitality to foot pads exposed to snow, ice, rough terrains and heat.  Many pet foot care balms are available. Do not use human products on your pets.
Bathing tips: While bathing your dog, thoroughly wash the feet, between the digits and between the under pad and digits as well. On completion of the bath, dry the paw completely, and if needed, apply a small quantity of antiseptic powder to keep them infection and bacteria free.
Winter care: The paw pad does act as an insulator, but extremely cold weather and snow can cause the paw pad to crack. To avoid the bitter cold from getting to your dogs paws, get them habituated to booties in the cold.
Summer care: During the summer, the ground gets very hot. Walking your dog on this hot ground can cause the paw pads to get burnt. The dog may suffer severe or minor burns, if so, do consult a vet. To avoid this, avoid walking your pet during the afternoon and walk them during cooler times in the day. Also wash their feet with cool water once they return from a walk and dry them.
Monsoon care: A lot of dogs love playing in the rain; do not stop them, just take a little extra care to ensure their paws stay healthy. Make sure you thoroughly wash their paws once they return from the rain and dry them thoroughly. Don’t forget to clean between the toes as dirt and bacteria lodge themselves in the toe web. Dampness between the toes can cause soreness and infection, hence ensure they are always dry. Rubber booties can be used to prevent dampness in the feet.
Foot pad injuries: Rough concrete surfaces can cause cuts, abrasions, ulcers to the paw pad, resulting in limping, excessive licking, bleeding and soreness. A mild injury can be treated at home by gently rinsing the wound and applying an antiseptic after drying.
Else, consult a vet immediately before it becomes worse.
By following these simple instructions you can keep your pet’s paws healthy and clean, hence ensuring your dog’s well being.
(Lokashi Aggarwal is a certified pet groomer who runs Pawfect – The Pet Salon and Spa in Mumbai).


Your essential Shampoo Guide

At present the market is flooded with wide variety of pet shampoos. Hence, before selecting any shampoo, basic knowledge regarding canine skin, hair coat type and the purpose of shampooing is essential. Here’s how to find the right one for your pooch.

What’s a shampoo?

Shampoo is an aqueous or semisolid preparation containing various ingredients like surfactants, cleansing agents and various other therapeutic and/or cosmetic agents used to remove surface grease, dirt and skin debris from the hair shaft and scalp without adversely affecting the hair, scalp or health of the user. Shampooing is one of the widely used methods in keeping the dog clean and healthy.

Principles of shampooing

Objective of shampooing is to cleanse the skin and hair coat. Soil or dirt basically consists of soluble, oily and insoluble particulate components. Surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) present in the shampoo reduces the surface tension of the water and thereby allows full contact between water and soluble soil. This facilitates the removal of soluble soils by aqueous medium. Detergent present in the shampoo displaces oily soil by a process known as roll up and thereby removes them from skin and haircoat. Surfactant molecules get adsorbed onto the hair fibre and thereby create an electrostatic repulsion force between insoluble soil particles and hair fibre. This electrostatic repulsion force removes insoluble soil particles from skin and haircoat.

Characteristics of a shampoo

  • It should be able to remove sebum and atmospheric pollutants from the hair and scalp.
  • It should be able to remove the residues of previously applied hair treatments, for example, hair sprays.
  • It should be able to deliver an optimum level of foam to satisfy the expectation of the user.
  • It should be able to provide the conditioning effect to the hair coat.
  • It should be able to perform as a vehicle for the deposition of beneficial materials onto the hair and scalp.
  • It should be able to be non-toxic and non-irritating to the hair and the scalp.
  • It should be able to be non-damaging to the tissues of the eye if inadvertently splashed.

Classification of shampoos

Shampoos are usually classified according to their purpose of usage, for example, conditioning shampoo, cosmetic shampoo, antifungal shampoo, antibacterial shampoo, anti-dandruff shampoo, etc.

Ingredients of shampoo

Various ingredients like surfactants, cleansing agents, emollients, emulsifiers, antimicrobials are included in the shampoo and their incorporation depends on the purpose of use. For example, antimicrobials, antiseborrheic agents are included in medicated shampoos. Whereas humectants, emollients, emulsifiers are principle ingredients of cosmetic shampoos. The table on page 30 will help in understanding incorpation of certain ingredients and their use in different conditions.

General guidelines for the selection of shampoo

  • In general, human shampoo or conditioners are not recommended for use in dogs.
  • Examine your dog before bathing and determine if there are special needs. It will make the shampoo selection process much easier.
  • Use only dog-specific shampoo that caters exclusively to your dog’s skin and fur needs.
  • l Ideally, a shampoo possessing both cleansing and therapeutical properties should be applied twice.
  • Don’t shampoo sick and ailing animals.

Shampoos for different dermatological disorders

Shampooing is one of the most popular and effective ways of treating dermatological affections.

  • Pyoderma: Shampooing plays an important supportive role in the treatment of pyoderma. Chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, benzoyl peroxide and ethyl lactate are the principle ingredients of antibacterial shampoos. Shampooing plays its role by decreasing cutaneous bacterial population and removing the surface tissue debris and thereby allowing the direct contact of the active ingredient with the organism and promoting the drainage. Usually shampooing is used along with systemic antibiotics in the treatment of pyoderma. But certain cases of surface pyoderma will respond to the topical antibacterial shampoos alone. In cases of deep pyoderma clipping of hair facilitates the contact of the product to the lesions. Frequency of shampooing depends on the severity of the lesions. Severe the lesions, more frequent will be the application.
  • Keratoseborrhoeic disorders: Shampoos containing keratomodulating agents (salicylic acid, coal tar, selenium disulphide, ethyl lactate) and antiseborrhoeic agents (sulphur, benzoyl peroxide) are used. Initially shampooing will be done 2 to 3 times weekly; with improvement in condition frequency of application can be reduced gradually. Long-haired dogs should be clipped. Clipping leads to more effective application and better distribution of the active ingredient. Efficacy of treatment should be monitored frequently.
  • Fungal diseases: Shampoos containing miconazole, ketaconazole and chlorhexidine are used to treat fungal skin disorders. Antimycotic shampoos are used as an adjunctive therapy for dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis. They limit contagiosity in case of dermatophytosis but are not effective in treating it when used alone. They are often used with systemic antifungals. Keratomodulating shampoos are beneficial in removing infected scales and crusts. They are used along with topical antifungals when there is keratoseborrhoeic disorder. Topical antifungal shampoos or lotions are preferable for extensive lesions.
  • Allergic diseases: Shampoos containing antipruritic agents like 1 percent hydrocortisone, 0.01 percent fluocinolone, 2 percent diphenhydramine, 1 percent pramoxine or colloidal oatmeal are used in allergic dermatitis. Antipruritic shampoos exert their beneficial effect by washing out the allergens from the skin and rehydrating the dry skin. Antipruritic shampoos should be used more frequently at least twice a week in the beginning of therapy. As antipruritic shampoos are rarely effective as sole therapy they are generally considered as adjunctive treatments to canine atopic dermatitis.
  • Parasitic diseases: Shampoos containing organochlorines, natural pyrethrins or synthetic pyrethroids are used as antiparasitic shampoos. As antiparasitic shampoos are rinsed off quickly and cannot act during a sufficient time, they are considered to be not efficacious as other formulations like sprays, pump-sprays, powders, spot-ons and line-ons.

Shampoos containing benzoyl peroxide are recommended in the treatment of demodicosis because of their degreasing and follicular flushing effect. Many parasitic diseases like scabies, cheyletiellosis and flea allergy dermatitis will cause a keratoseborrhoeic disorder and the affected animals will benefit from application of keratomodulating shampoos.

Once you know your dog’s coat condition, use an appropriate shampoo for him.

Tips for shampooing your pooch

  • Having another person with you to hold the dog should make the job easier.
  • Use of a shower head will help removal of surface debris and dirt, as well as thoroughly wetting the coat and skin. A sponge may also be useful for harder-to-reach areas (such as between the toes).
  • If using a bath tub, do not leave the plug in, as this may lead to dilution of the shampoo when your dog is standing in the water.
  • Ensure that the water is lukewarm. If the water is too cold, your dog may be uncomfortable and reluctant to bathe in future. If the water is too hot, it can increase the dog’s desire to scratch.
  • l The optimum skin contact time for shampoo is 10 minutes. Timing should start as soon as the dog has been lathered. Be careful of the eyes, if shampoo gets into the eyes, bathe them with large amounts of clean, lukewarm water.
  • After rinsing him properly with water, hand dry with a towel. Do not use a hairdrye, as heating of the skin surface may lead to itching and can damage the hair and upper skin layers.
  • Do not allow the animal to lick himself during the shampooing and rinsing or before the dog is dried.
  • Take care to avoid the animal inhaling the product or getting it into the nose, mouth or eyes during shampooing.

(Dr Priyanka is Assistant Professor, Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College, Hassan, Karnataka while Dr Vijay Kumar M is Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Bidar, Karnataka).