Oxygen for life: Cell-Pet

Just like oxygen is important for life, so is Cell-Pet important for our pets…for longevity and health. Let’s see how.
5According to Limca Book of World Records, oldest living dog was Tom, a Pomeranian  belonging to Shyama Prasanna Sen of Uttar Pradesh. He was 22 years and five months old as on June 22, 2015. What’s more? This dog was on Cell-Pet. There is a female Daschund named Tulsi from Delhi. She had sugar problem, due to which her hind legs got paralysed. Also, she lost her vision. On 1st June 2016, a vet from Ashok Vihar in Delhi recommended Cell-Pet (Immune Booster). In the next 15 days, we started observing improvement in  Tulsi’s legs; so, we continued with Cell-Pet. It took three months for overall improvement which controlled the sugar plus the paralysis.

 

Handling Skin problems…
untitled-125This Pug’s treatment with Cell-Pet started on 01-06-2016. The Cell-Pet can applied mixing with any aqueous cream; and so the pet was given drink mixing with water daily. On 05-06-2016 the pet received a magical improvement because it oxygenated inside & outside. Today, the pet parent is very happy. After two weeks, the final result is 100 percent cured on 15-06-2016

 

gddHow Cell-Pet works?
Cell-Pet is a liquid, highly-concentrated, super-energized, colloidal mineral and nutritional supplement, which you add to the drinking water of your Pet on a daily basis, in order to maintain its peak performance and general well-being. As a dynamic multi-action agent, Cell-Pet is environmentally and ecologically safe for all types of pets. It has no detrimental side-effects, and has numerous benefits for your Pet, which include enhancing vitality and energy, reducing lethargy or distress and unbalanced hyperactivity, protecting against diseases, enhancing optimal bodily functions, strengthening systems, e.g. immune system, balancing body mass, improving digestion, enhancing texture and sheen of coat, promoting peak performance and maintaining general well-being. The process of healing sometimes includes a healing crisis, also known as the detox reaction or the cleansing reaction. During a healing crisis, the dog can feel even worse than before the Cell-Pet treatment began.

 

Can Cell-Pet be given in any  form of food?
If you add Cell-Pet to the food, the product enters the body through the digestive system,
where up to 30 percent will be discarded. Take small proportion of food, add dosage of CELL-PET & give to your loved one. But, when you add it in water, the Cell-Pet which is
in colloidal form, enters the blood stream directly via the mucous membranes of the mouth
and oesophagus ensuring that 100 percent of the product is absorbed. If the user wants
to add it to the food, the dosage is to be increased by as much as 30 percent, so instead of using 3 drops, increase the dosage to 5 drops, etc. Further, you can add Cell-Pet to any liquid provided the temperature is below 25oC.

 

562How to use it on skin? Cell-Pet is very acidic and can cause a lot of pain to the animal when applied to the wound, Lick Granuloma or any acute or chronic skin disease or infection But, it is recommended that Cell-Pet be mixed with a cream or gel such as aqueous cream prior to being rubbed on the wound or mixed with an anti-fungal liquid prior to rubbing it on the Lick Granuloma or skin disease/infection.

Everything you wanted to know about Rabies

Dr Ashwini Kumar Singh

Dr Ashwini Kumar Singh

Dr Kumar Mangalam Yadav

Dr Kumar Mangalam Yadav

Rabies can adversely affect you and your pet. Here’s how to prevent rabies and manage it, if it occurs.

 

 

 

Rabies, one of the oldest recognised diseases, is a highly fatal viral infection of the central nervous system, which occurs in warm blooded animals. This disease causes inflammation of the brain leading to death.

 

Rabies transmission
The rabies is transmitted by the bites of affected animals. In India, dogs are mainly responsible for maintaining the disease and transmitting it to human beings. Jackals, foxes and wolves, etc maintain the disease in sylvatic areas. Mongoose also suffers from the disease and can transmit it. Rabies is not transmitted to pups through mother. There are higher chance of transmission through their mother lick and bites.

 

untitled-21Symptoms of rabies
These may be described in three phases – the prodromal, the excitative and the paralytic form. Predominant excitative phase in usually termed as ‘furious rabies’ and predominantly paralytic as ‘dumb rabies’.

 

Prodromal phase: During this phase, there is a change in the temperament of the dog, who might turn aggressive and snappy. The dog usually refuses to take food, there may be slight rise in temperature, dilatation of the pupil and sluggish corneal reflex.

 

Excitation phase: After 2-3 days, the dog becomes increasingly irritable and restless; photophobia may be become apparent. He will not take food but will show a tendency to eat unnatural things like soil, straw, stone, wood etc. At this stage, he develops biting tendency and bites anyone coming in his way. Eyes become fixed and staring and appear expressionless. Paralytic symptoms appear in the form of dropped lower jaw, tongue hanging out, excessive salivation, change in voice and loss of voice.
Paralytic stage: In this stage, the dog hides in the dark place, like under the furniture. In most cases, there is characteristic changes in his bark due to laryngeal paralysis and then to pharyngeal spasm and paralysis, causing the animal to drool saliva. Paralysis of the whole body occurs followed by coma and death. The whole clinical course of the disease may last upto a maximum of 10 days. One should be alert in certain cardinal signs, especially jaw paralysis and the typical bark.

 

Duration of disease
The period of incubation is roughly 10 days to one year and it depends on several factors including the site through which the virus enters into the body. If the site is closer to the brain, the disease spreads faster, resulting to death within five to seven days.

 

How is rabies diagnosed?
Clinical diagnosis: The diagnosis of rabies is one of the most difficult and important duties that veterinarian is called upon to perform. In most of the cases, the probability of human exposure, failure to recognise the disease may place human life in jeopardy. History of dog bite, sometimes prior to the development of disease, is usually most important for diagnosis.

 

Laboratory diagnosis: It includes –

  • Rabies fluorescent antibody test
  • Dot immunobinding assay
  • Histopathological examination
  • Mouse inoculation test
  • Virus isolation
  • Radioimmune assay

 

Prevention
All dogs and cats should be vaccinated against rabies at three months of age and revaccinated one year later. There are two types of vaccines in use: Nerve tissue vaccines and Tissue Culture vaccines.

 

untitled-22Management of animals who bite humans
A healthy dog, who bites a person, should be confined and observed for 10 days. It is recommended that rabies vaccine not be administered during the observation period. Such animals should be evaluated by veterinarian at the first sign of illness during confinement. Any illness in the animal should be reported immediately to the local health department.

 

Management for human bitten by rabid animals

  • Flush and clean the bite wound with plenty of soap and water to remove and kill the virus as much as possible. After cleaning with soap solution, the wound should be treated by applying diluted solution of cetavlon. Strong corrosives like carbolic acid, silver nitrate and nitric acid are not preferred now-a-days.
  • Do not put sutures to the wound as far as possible. In case suturing is unavoidable, use antirabies immunoglobuline locally.
  • Do not cover the wound with plaster or sealing bandage.
  • Antibiotics and prophylaxis for tetanus should be advocated as per the merit of case.
  • Immunosuppressing agent like corticosteroids should not be given during the immunization period.
  • Immediately follow the post exposure antirabies vaccination schedule. Previously immunized human will receive vaccine as per schedule.

(Dr Ashwini Kumar Singh and Dr Kumar Manglam Yadav are students of Mahatma Gandhi Veterinary College, Bharatpur, Rajasthan).

We have HEART MATTERS TOO!

Did you know dogs can also suffer from heart problems? Here, we focus on the acquired heart diseases of dogs.

–by Col Virendra Kumar

Contrary to popular belief, heart diseases and associated problems in dogs are quite common. However, specific diagnosis of the problem may not be easily available to pet parents in certain cases because of non-availability of specialised diagnostic facilities. Specialisation will emerge in Veterinary profession as well as the new trends in pet parenting emerge and customer expectation grows. There can be many potential causes of heart diseases. Any form of heart disease, may lead to a clinical situation in which heart fails to respond to the demand of the body, popularly known as ‘Heart Failure’.

 

Types of heart diseases
Heart diseases can be congenital or acquired. Congenital heart disease is present at the time of birth. Acquired heart diseases are those which results due to wear and tear of the heart, with or without infection or injury. Middle aged or old dogs suffer from acquired heart disease. Vulnerability varies from breed to breed and dog to dog depending upon lifestyle.

 

Acquired heart diseases
Diseases of the heart which occur as a result of wear and tear of the heart (Acquired Heart Diseases) include:

  • Valvular disease-Though all the breeds are susceptible, smaller breeds show more vulnerability. Mitral valve is commonly affected.
  • Myocardial diseases- Heart muscles are affected, common in larger breeds. Also called cardiomyopathy.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias- When electrical system of the heart is affected and abnormal heart beats are heard (cardiac murmur).
  • Pericardial disease- When outermost layer of the heart is affected, it puts the restriction on function of heart beat.
  • Infections – Especially Parvo virus infection.
  • Injury- Specially due to Heart worm infestation.

The symptoms produced may be identical and differential diagnosis is a must. Overall, it is the vet’s clinical judgment to deploy the diagnostic tools.

 

Medications to manage heart disease
There are many options available with the vet who will decide based on the diagnosis, overall clinical profile of the dog and severity of the disease.
Diuretics: These are generally used to remove the extra fluid that results from suboptimal heart function (heart failure).
ACE inhibitors (Antiotensin-converting enzymes: These cause vasodilatation and thus results into lower blood pressure. It can be used to monitor hypertension.
Vasodilators and Vasoconstriction drugs: Depending upon the requirement, doctor can prescribe these.
Inotropes: These increase the intensity of heart contraction.
Medications that reduce blood clotting: These are used to prevent thromboembolism which results into blockage of artery thus preventing circulation.

 

Nutritional supplements: Many of the heart conditions respond to supplements such as Taurine or L-carnitine. Anti-oxidants such as coQ10 are also used by some. It is basically vet’s discretion and he must be consulted. Incidence of acquired heart disease is increasing now though authentic data may not be available for India. Geriatric patients are more vulnerable as wear and tear of the heart increases in old age. Life style changes are required along with the correct diagnosis to institute a correct treatment regimen so that your dog can lead the normal life.

 

untitled-15Diagnosis
Diagnosis will be very critical and veterinarian has to play a critical role in diagnosis and in prescribing the correct line of treatment.
Physical examination: of the patient is most critical. Presence of fluid in lungs or abdomen can be found out. Cardiac murmur can be heard with auscultation. Vet may look for coughing by the dogs along with other associated symptoms.
X-Ray: It is another important tool available with the Vet which can help in diagnosis based on increased shape and size of the heart, and increased size of the blood vessels. It can also substantiate the presence of fluid in abdominal cavity and in lungs, leading to the diagnosis of heart failure. Presence of ascites (fluid in abdominal cavity) can also be substantiated with X-Ray , also seen in cases of heart failure.
Echocardiogram: Ultrasonic examination is another very important tool for the confirmatory diagnosis of all the heart diseases. ECG is for recording the electrical activity of the heart especially for abnormal heart beats or arrhythmias.
Other tests: Supporting evidence can be through thyroid testing and with antibiotic sensitivity test, depending upon the clinical condition of the dog. Blood level of Taurine can also help in diagnosis of certain heart problem.

(Col Virendra Kumar, MSD Animal Health)

Cell-Pet: A boon for pet parents!

Here’s how to heal your pooch
from various diseases.
A seven-year-old Pug named Broozo suffered from severe chronic Mange skin infection for the last six years. Marwah, the pet parent in Noida, consulted many veterinarians across Delhi & Noida but there was no improvement to Broozo’s skin condition. Marwah then referred to a vet in New Friends Colony in New Delhi who administered Cell-Pet at a dosage of six drops of Cell-Pet mixed in 20 ml drinking water in a syringe which was then sprayed 55into the Pug’s mouth. The vet also instructed that 3-4 drops of Cell-Pet is to be mixed into some Aqueous Cream which was to be rubbed on to the mange infected skin areas on a daily basis. Broozo’s condition had improved considerably since Cell-Pet was administered. Cell-Pet had oxygenated the body from the inside and the outside. Broozo’s skin improved. All the open wounds had healed nicely and Broozo is almost back to normal.

 

Facts on mange…
Mange is a type of inflammatory skin disease caused by tiny parasitic mites on dogs. There are two basic types of mange, Sarcoptic and Demodectic, which have separate causes and symptoms. It is important to be able to identify the signs of each, and to understand the difference between them. Though mange is rarely fatal, knowing how to recognise this frustrating disease early makes treating the dog much easier in the long run.
Sarcoptic Mange usually causes frantic itching. The dog may relentlessly scratch or chew at his skin to relieve the itch. The dog’s skin irritated from the constant scratching and biting, can easily become infected. The itching can even be so severe that it distracts the dog from normal eating, drinking, and resting.
Demodectic Mange, the least serious variety, usually results in one or two “thin” or bald patches in the dog’s hair. Usually, this small patch will not appear inflamed or irritated and will not cause serious itching.
Broozo was obviously suffering from Sarcoptic Mange.

 

Testimonial of a pet parent…
“My 11 years old Labrador Romeo like most other Labs had a joint pain and was finding it difficult to climb stairs. Whenever we needed to take him for a walk, he would refuse to 369budge and it was a herculean task to coax him to climb down the stairs from our 1st floor apartment. He was also little weak and lethargic because of his old age. Then I heard of Cell-Pet and thought of giving it a try. The first 7/8 days of Cell-Pet very taxing and I almost thought of giving it up. He would be restless at night and I could see some change in his coat. I understood that the Cell-Pet was rejuvenating his cells and the toxins were getting removed from his body. After the initial few days he became very active, his coat became shiny and we have never had a day of lethargy. He started hopping up the stairs like he did when he was young. Our happiness to see him active once again knew no bounds. Cell-Pet is indeed a great boon for pet lovers,” said Lakshmi Narayan Mallya.

 

 

Untitled-1025How Cell-Pet works…?
Labrador Romeo experienced what is commonly referred to as a “Healing Crises”. The process of healing sometimes includes a healing crisis, also known as the detox reaction or the cleansing reaction. During a healing crisis, the dog can feel even worse than before the Cell-Pet treatment began. But, with time, he will be healed completely.

 

How to use Cell Pet
288Take small proportion of food, add dosage of Cell-Pet & give to your loved one. When you add it in water, the Cell-Pet which is in colloidal form, enters the blood stream directly via the mucous membranes of the mouth and oesophagus ensuring that 100 percent of the product is absorbed. If the user wants to add it to the food, the dosage is to be increased by as much as 30 percent, so instead of using 3 drops, increase the dosage to 5 drops, etc. You can add Cell-Pet to any liquid provided the temperature is below 25 percent.
Cell-Pet™ is a registered blend of natural plant-sourced minerals, nutrients and electrolytes and is not a medicine. Enchantrix Organic Pvt Ltd and the manufacturers make no medical claims or otherwise for the treatment, prevention, cure or mitigation of disease. If your Pet has a medical condition, we recommend you consult a Veterinarian.

Canine Flu Diagnosis, Control & Treatment

Dr Rahul Kumar

Dr Rahul Kumar

Dr Vinod Kumar Singh

Dr Vinod Kumar Singh

Canine influenza or Canine flu is a contagious respiratory infection in dogs. Here’s more about this dreaded disease.

 

 

 

 

Canine influenza is an emerging contagious respiratory infection of dogs. It has a high morbidity (close to 100 percent), but the mortality, as with most other influenza infections, is relatively low (less than 8 percent). A novel influenza-A virus that appears to be a mutation from a previously recognised strain of equine influenza virus, the H3N8 strain, causes this disease. Dog-to-dog transmission does occur and therefore this infection must be distinguished from kennel cough.

 

The virus…
Influenza viruses are enveloped viruses with segmented single stranded RNA genomes that belong to the Orthomyxoviridae. family Influenza viruses that cause disease in domestic animals belong to Ggenus Influenza virus A, whereas influenza B and influenza C viruses primarily circulate among humans. Influenza A viruses are classified based on the genetic composition of their haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) genes. To date, 16H types and 9 N types have been identified, each of which are antigenically distinct. Canine influenza virus usually causes fever, joint pain and respiratory signs. CIV infection can cause respiratory disease by itself or in conjunction with other respiratory pathogens such as Distemper virus, respiratory coronavirus, Parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, etc. Death is unusual but causes respiratory complications, which are most common in very old and very young ones. It is important to note that influenza virus is not related to parainfluenza virus and infection or vaccination for one does not induce cross-protective immunity against the other

 

Transmission
Like other respiratory pathogens, CIV is most efficiently transmitted by direct contact with infected dogs and by aerosols as a result of coughing and sneezing. Dogs have the highest level of virus in their secretions 2-4 days after they are exposed to virus. Often they are not yet showing clinical signs when they are most potent source of transmitting the virus. Dogs may be able to spread the virus for up to 10 days. The virus can contaminate kennel surfaces, food and water bowls, collars and leashes and the hands & clothing of people who handle the infected dogs. Influenza virus can remain viable on surfaces for up to 48 hours, on clothing for 24 hours and on hands for 12 hours. Fortunately, washing hands with simple disinfectant easily inactivates the virus.

 

Untitled-140Pathogenesis
Canine influenza virus replicates in epithelial cells lining the airways from nose to the terminal airways in the lungs. Peak viral shedding starts from the upper respiratory tract during the incubation period of 2-4 days, therefore, dogs are most contagious prior to showing obvious clinical signs. Dogs with subclinical infection also shed virus. Virus shedding decreases substantially during the first four days of illness, but continues up to seven days in most dogs, and to 10 days in some dogs. Once virus shedding ceases, the dog is no longer contagious. Therefore, it is dodgy that dogs pose a significant infectious risk after 10-14 days of onset of clinical signs. Following viral replication in necrosed epithelial cells expose the basement membrane to secondary infections by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative commensal bacteria including Streptococcus sp, Staphyloccocus sp, E. coli, Klebsiella, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma spp. These bacteria contribute to development of purulent nasal discharge and productive cough. The viral and secondary bacterial infections initiate an intense inflammatory response resulting in rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis. Fortunately, most of the infected dogs recover within 2-3 weeks without any further health complications. However, some dogs progress to pneumonia, which is usually due to secondary bacterial infections. The overall mortality rate for canine influenza is very low. The secondary pneumonia develops due to contamination by invaders can be life threatening.

 

Signs and symptoms
Fortunately, most of the sufferers have the mild form of this illness. Those animals who are more susceptible to serious illness are young puppies, old dogs and dogs with weakened immune systems. Infected animals may show symptoms within two to five days post exposure. Two clinical syndromes have been seen in dogs infected with the canine influenza virus–a mild form and a more severe form of the disease.

  • Mild form–Dogs suffering with the mild form of canine influenza develop a soft, moist cough that persists for 10 to 30 days. Some dogs have a dry cough similar to the ‘kennel cough’ caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica/parainfluenza virus complex. For this reason, canine influenza virus infections are frequently mistaken for ‘kennel cough’. Dogs with the mild form of influenza may also have a thick nasal discharge, which is usually caused by a secondary bacterial infection.
  • Severe form–Dogs with the severe form of canine influenza develop high fevers (104º-106ºF) and have clinical signs of pneumonia, such as increased respiratory rates and effort. Pneumonia in these dogs is not caused by the influenza virus, but by secondary bacterial infections. The fatality rate of dogs who develop pneumonia secondary to canine influenza can reach 50 percent if not given proper treatment.

 

Diagnosis
Solely clinical signs cannot diagnose canine influenza because the clinical signs (coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge) are similar to those associated with all of the other respiratory pathogens and cannot be differentiated from them. Antibodies to canine influenza virus may be detected in the blood as early as seven days after onset of clinical signs and the virus may be identified in nasal or pharyngeal swabs during the first four days of illness. The most reliable and sensitive method for confirmation of infection is serological testing. Paired acute serum samples (taken within the first seven days of illness) and convalescent serum samples (taken 10-14 days later) are necessary for diagnosis of recent infection. If an acute sample is not available, a convalescent sample will indicate whether a dog has been exposed to the virus at some point in the past. A diagnosis of CIV is made based on a four-fold increase in antibody titer from the acute to the convalescent sample.  If a dog has been ill for less than four days, nasal and pharyngeal swab submission for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing can be performed. If the PCR indicates a positive result, the dog is most likely infected. Negative PCR results may be falsely negative if the swabs are not collected during the time of peak virus shedding. After four days of illness, PCR results are less likely to be reliable. Serology should be performed to confirm infection, especially if the PCR results are negative and the case is highly suspicious for CIV infection.  Other diagnostic options applicable to dogs who have died from pneumonia are viral culture and PCR analysis using fresh (not formalin-preserved or frozen) lungs and tracheal tissue. Virus detection in respiratory secretion specimens from acutely ill animals by use of viral culture, PCR analysis and rapid chromatographic immunoassay is possible, but usually unrewarding.  Prevent your dog from influenza and get him treated as early as possible.
(Dr Rahul Kumar and Dr Vinod Kumar Singh work at the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, DUVASU, Mathura, UP.)

 

Untitled-99Treatment
Since canine influenza is a viral infection, treatment consists mainly of supportive care based on clinical signs and laboratory tests. There is no specific antiviral treatment for canine influenza. A variety of secondary bacterial infections may play a significant role, therefore, the antibiotics are indicated for dogs having fever, productive cough and purulent nasal discharge. Nasal secretion usually responds within days to treatment with a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic, but cough may persist for 10 to 30 days. Antitussives are not very effective in reducing frequency and duration of coughing, hence contraindicated in dogs with productive cough. Dogs who develop pneumonia usually require hospitalisation for intravenous fluids and parenteral antibiotics. Ideally, a trans-tracheal or endotracheal wash for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing should be performed to target the choice of antibiotic. For dogs in which cultures are not performed, empirical treatment with a broad-spectrum combination of bactericidal antibiotics may be recommended to cover gram positive, gram negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. For more severe cases of pneumonia, oxygen supplementation and nebulisation has been very beneficial.

 

Prevention
Untitl6Vaccine is available for reduction of disease due to CIV. The available vaccine is incapable to completely prevent infection and shedding, but they can lessen the severity of disease, provided other factors such as overcrowding and appropriate disinfection and reduction of other stressors are also addressed. Inactivated, parenteral vaccines are available for reduction of disease and shedding caused by H3N8 CIV. One vaccine also reduced the severity of illness caused by co-challenge with CIV and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. The use of these vaccines could be considered for dogs who are likely to contact other dogs in regions where CIV is endemic, especially those who enter shelters, boarding kennels, shows, sporting competitions, popular dog parks, or pet daycare facilities.  The initial vaccine can be given as early as six weeks of age. Because CIV vaccines are inactivated, two initial doses are required three to four weeks apart, and maximum immunity does not occur until one week after the second dose.

How to handle HOT DAYS for your canine friend

Dr Ashwini Kumar Singh

Dr Ashwini Kumar Singh

 

The dog days of summer provide lots of opportunities for fun with your dog but the hot months can be uncomfortable—even dangerous—for pets. Here’s how to take care of your pets during the hotter days.

 

 

 

It’s difficult enough simply to cope with rising temperatures, let alone humidity, but things really get tough in areas that are hit with the double blow of intense heat and storm-caused power outages. Keeping pets safe during the summer is easier if you know what the risks are and how to manage them for your dog’s safety. First, let us see what are the common hazards in this weather and how to prevent them:

 

 

Untitled-22Dehydration: Prevent dehydration by providing your dog with unrestricted access to fresh and cool water both indoors and outside. Ice cubes and frozen chicken encourage your dog to take in more fluids and help keep him cool. You can also feed your dog wet dog food during the summer to increase his fluid intake.

 

 

Heat stroke: Heat stroke is a serious risk to dog’s health – in worst case scenarios, it can Untitled-33be fatal. You can prevent heat stroke by restricting your pet’s exercise during the hottest hours of the day (early morning or late evening are the best times for exercise during the summer), by making sure he is well hydrated, providing cool places for him to relax, providing opportunities to swim, cooling mats, and by never leaving your dog unattended in the car during the day.

 

 

Untitled-44Burned pads: Under the summer sun, asphalt on sidewalks and streets can heat to a temperature that can burn a dog’s paws. To avoid scorched paws, walk your dog very early in the morning or in the late evening when the streets have cooled off. Always put your hand down on the asphalt for about thirty seconds – if you find it too hot, it is too hot for your dog to walk on without hurting his paws.

 

Untitled-55Parasites: This is the season for fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes; which can be life threatening or cause self-mutilating behaviors. Feeding your dog a high quality diet, without preservatives or chemicals will build his immune system, making him generally more resistant to parasite infestation. There are a wide variety of preventatives on the market, including chemical spot-on treatments, repellent shampoos, essential oils, and flea/tick collars. Cleaning your house frequently and keeping your dog well groomed will also reduce the risk of parasite infestation.

 

 

Untitled-66Sunburn: Dogs can burn in the sun just like people can. White, light-colored, and thinly coated dogs have an increased risk of sunburn. Sunburn causes pain, itching, peeling, and other problems. To prevent sunburn, apply a waterproof sunscreen formulated for babies or pets. Be sure to cover the tips of your dog’s ears, nose, skin around its mouth and back.

 

 

Untitled-77Seasonal allergies: Your dog may be allergic to one or more seasonal items, which include fleas, grass and various plants, and mold. If you suspect your dog may have seasonal allergies, is scratching and perhaps losing fur. Keep such things at bay. In case, you think that your dog is behaving abnormally, seek help. Here are a few danger signs to watch out:

 

 

Watch the humidity: It’s important to remember that it’s not just the ambient temperature but also the humidity that can affect your pet. Animals pant to evaporate moisture from their lungs, which takes heat away from their body. If the humidity is too high, they are unable to cool themselves, and their temperature will skyrocket to dangerous levels—very quickly.”

 

 

Untitled-88Symptoms to watch out: Keep an eye on your pets during particularly hot spells; watch for indications that they are having difficulty with the heat. Signs that your dog is in distress due to heat include vomiting or drooling, fatigue, heavy panting or obvious difficulty breathing, diarrhea, or seizures.

 

 

Battling heat stroke: If you feel your dog is suffering from heat stroke, then move your pet into the shade or an air-conditioned area. Apply ice packs or cold towels to his head, neck, and chest or run cool water (not cold) over her. Let him drink small amounts of cool water or lick ice cubes.

 

Untitled-99Seek a vet: Even if you believe your pet has suffered from only a mild case of heat stroke, and you feel you’ve treated it successfully, you should still get your pet to a veterinarian. Heat stroke can potentially cause serious internal problems that may not become obvious for some time, possibly even until days after the event.

 

 

Cooling off tips for your pooch

Time for a swim: When you are going for a swim in the morning, take your dog along. Since they are exposed to harsh rays throughout the day, it is important for dogs to take a dip in the water as well. And what’s more? Dogs are great swimmers themselves, and you don’t have to worry about them. But, do keep a close watch.

 

Provide plenty of water, plenty of shade: Dehydration in dogs and cats is a real possibility during the summer, especially if your pet is the type to run and play outside for extended periods without drinking sufficient water. Telltale signs of dehydration include dry gums, loss of skin elasticity, excessive drooling. Don’t let this happen. Give your active pet plenty of playtime breaks in the shade with access to fresh water.

 

Never leave ‘your dog’ in the car: You may think leaving your pet in a car for a few minutes is no big deal, but it can lead to heat stroke. In bright sunshine, your car acts like an oven, becoming much hotter inside than the outside air. So, either take your pet with you or leave him at home during shopping trips.

 

Don’t expose them to harsh sun rays: It is a must to take your dogs out for a walk but take them out early morning If you plan to take them for a jog along in the evening, make sure you take them out when the sun has set. Remember to keep them in the shade always. Be especially careful with pets with white-colored ears, which are more susceptible to skin cancer, and short-nosed pets, which typically have difficulty breathing. Always carry water with you to keep your dog from dehydrating.

 

Keep a check on your dog’s diet: While we are busy eating watery fruits to keep ourselves hydrated during summer, it is important to keep a check on your dog’s diet also. Make them drink water regularly, and include summer foods to cool them off.

 

Groom your dogs: It is important to groom your dogs. You can trim their fur to keep their body light but never shave them.
Cool your pet inside and out: Keep your pet from overheating with a cooling body wrap, vest, or mat. If your dog doesn’t find baths stressful, one can also go for a cooling soak.

 

Keep the pet cool: Pets respond differently to heat than humans do. (Dogs, for instance, sweat primarily through their feet.) So, always keep them in a room with cooler or air-conditioner.

 

(Dr Ashwani Kumar Singh, veterinary physician & surgeon is intern at Government Veterinary Hospital, Bharatpur, Rajasthan).

Canine babesiosis – a tick to worry!

In summer months, our pooches need to be safeguarded against tick infections like Babesiosis. Here’s more on this tick transmitted canine disease.

 

Dr Priya Chettri

Dr Priya Chettri

Dr GM Arpitha

Dr GM Arpitha

Dr A Sangaran

Dr A Sangaran

Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted canine disease caused by haemoprotozoan
parasite of the genus Babesia. The disease is distributed worldwide and infection is more common in areas where tick infestation is very high and when routine acaricide use is not practiced.
History: Victor Babes was the first person who recognised Babesia in the red blood cells of cattle in 1888. Later in 1893, Kilborne and Smith named it as Babesia, classifying them as protozoans.
Species: There are two Babesia species that cause Babesiosis in dogs – Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni. While, there are three subtypes of Babesia canis – Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi.

 

Risk factors

  • Transmitted by the bite of brown dog tick ‘Rhipicephalus sanguineus’: Dogs who spend a lot of time outdoors are at an increased risk for tick bites and for contracting this parasite. This is especially true in the summer months, from May through September, when tick populations are higher.
  • Recent dog bite (Babesia gibsoni).
  • Blood transfusion from infected donor dog.
  • Immunosuppression.
  • Splenectomy.
  • Transplacental transmission – from the mother dog to the developing foetus through placenta.

How it infects?
Dogs become infected with Babesia sp., when a tick feeds on the blood and releases ‘sporozoites’ into the dog’s bloodstream. These sporozoites invade the red blood cells and multiply leading to the formation of ‘merozoites’ which may be ingested by a new tick during a blood meal. Following ingestion by the tick, Babesia sp., undergoes rapid multiplication, resulting in numerous sporozoites (in the tick salivary glands) that are infective to healthy dogs by the infected tick feeding.

 

Signs and symptoms

  • Fever
  • Inappetance
  • Lethargy
  • Pale mucous membranes
  •  Vomiting
  • Bounding pulses
  • Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen)
  • Lymphadenopathy(enlarged lymphnode)
  • Dark discolouration of the urine (Haemoglobinuria) – often coffee coloured
  • Jaundice
  • Hemolytic anaemia

Disease is less severe with Babesia canis vogeli than with Babesia gibsoni infection.

How is Babesiosis diagnosed in your pet?
It can be difficult to confirm a diagnosis of Babesiosis. Blood tests may show a decrease in the number of red blood cells and platelets (thrombocytopenia), but this is not specific to Babesia. Blood smears can be examined for the presence of the Babesia organisms. If they are present, the diagnosis can be confirmed, but they may not always show up on a smear (taking blood from a cut on the ear tip or from a toenail can improve the odds of finding the parasites).
The most current and best way to diagnose Babesia canis is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Blood can also be tested for antibodies to Babesia, though this can sometimes produce misleading results. Specialised testing can check for genetic material from Babesia, and while this is the most sensitive test, it is not widely available and has some limitations as well. Generally, a combination of lab tests along with clinical signs and history are used to make a diagnosis.
The diagnosis can be further complicated by the fact that dogs infected with Babesia may also be infected with other diseases carried by ticks, such as Erlichia, Lyme disease, or Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

 

Which breeds are susceptible?

  • The disease can occur in any dog breed
    at any age, but young dogs tend to
    suffer with more serious illness.
  • Babesia canis vogeli infections are more prevalent
    in Greyhound breeds.
  • Babesia gibsoni infections are more prevalent in American Pit Bull Terriers.

 

What treatment you should give?

If your pet is severely anaemic, he may require a blood transfusion.

Preventing Babesiosis

  • The secret of keeping your pet free from Babesia is good tick control.
  • Check your dog periodically for ticks (ticks must feed for at least 24-48 hours to spread Babesia). This is especially important in peak tick season or if your dog spends time in the woods or tall grass.
  • The best way to remove the ticks is to grasp the tick’s mouth parts with the help of small tweezers and pull them. Try not to crush them.
  • Brush or comb your pet regularly.
  • Use collars that contain acaricides such as Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin, Flumethrin (Tick Collars) combined with fipronil spray. These are quite effective in repelling ticks. Fipronil spray is more effective than the dropper form.
  • Treat your yard and garden with acaricides to control the ticks.
  • Blood donor dogs should be screened for Babesia spp. by blood smear, serology and molecular technique such as PCR.

 

(Dr Priya Chettri and Dr Arpitha GM are perusing MVSc in Veterinary Parasitology and Dr A Sangaran, PhD, is a veterinary parasitologist and professor at Madras Veterinary College, Chennai.)

Mineral Magic and its effect on coat condition!

Dr AK Singh

Dr AK Singh

The eyes may be the windows to the soul, but the condition of a dog’s coat and skin give a better indication of his overall nutritional status. The skin is the largest organ of the body and when it is not getting the nutrition it needs, problems are readily observed. Nutrition plays a key role in maintaining healthy skin and coat condition in dogs and cats. The coat of an animal is its first line of defence. Maintaining a coat that is healthy in appearance is important to the animal and to the pet parent for aesthetic reasons.

Untitled-5The skin, the largest organ in the body, serves as the second barrier to outside antigens. Cracks in the skin may allow bacteria and toxins from the environment to enter the body. The health of both the skin and coat of dogs and cats is affected directly by the nutrition of the animal. Therefore, feeding a complete and balanced diet is critical in maintaining skin and coat health.
Nutritional deficiencies and excesses, both can have detrimental effects; however, genetic defects in some animals may also result in a decrease in absorption of some essential nutrients needed for optimal skin and coat health. The most notable nutrients involved in skin and coat health include protein, fatty acids and zinc, as well as select vitamins and trace minerals.

Dr AP Singh

Dr AP Singh

Know more about your dog’s skin…
Adult skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis or subcutis.
Epidermis: The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. All epidermal cells are derived from the basal membrane (stratum basale), which is composed primarily of keratinocytes although other cells, including melanocytes, are also present. Keratinocytes have many functions, including production of keratin, a fibrous, sulfur-containing protein; and production of a lipid secretion which has an integral role in the regulation of the stratum-corneum barrier function and desquamation.
Dermis: The dermis supports the epidermis and consists of a matrix of collagen and reticular and elasticin a ground substance of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The tensile strength and elasticity of the skin is largely attributable to the dermis, which is also responsible for the maintenance and repair of the skin and modifies the structure and function of the epidermis.

Dr Preeti

Dr Preeti

Hypodermis: The underlying hypodermis is made up of loose connective tissue, elastic fibers, and variable amounts of fat. This layer acts as an energy reserve, as an insulator, and as protective padding and maintains the body contours.
Know more about your dog’s hair…
Three types of hair are present in dogs: the primary or guard hairs; the fine secondary hairs; and the tactile or sinus hairs, including the whiskers, which are responsible for the perception of touch. Each hair is divided into a free part or shaft, and a proximal part and root.
The hair is housed in an epithelial pit called a hair follicle and is attached, via the hair bulb, to the dermal papilla in the base of the follicle. It is here that mitotic activity occurs, which leads to the production of the hair matrix. Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are situated in the hair bulb.
Associated with the hair follicles there are:

  • Sebaceous glands, except in the footpads or on the nose, which produce sebum.
  • An erector pili muscle which elevates the hair and helps in the expression of sebum.
  • Apocrine sweat glands (except in the skin of the footpads and nose), which predominantly function as pheromone secretory gland, rather than a thermoregulatory action.
  • Eccrine sweat glands (only in the skin of the footpads), which are activated under nervous control, particularly in stressed or excited dogs.

Functions of skin and coat…
Major functions of the skin and coat include:

SS Kullu

SS Kullu

  • Maintenance of an enclosing natural barrier between the animal’s internal environment and the outside world.
  • Preservation of the animal’s shape.
  • Protection against water loss
  • Protection from physical, chemical, and microbial injury imposed by external agents.
  • Storage of nutrients.
  • Sensory perception.
  • Thermoregulation.
  • Vitamin D synthesis.
  • Important indicator of health status.
  • Significant role in communication (e.g., pilo erection, excretion of pheromones).
  • The protective function of the skin and coat is enhanced by the presence of an emulsion of sebum.

This emulsion also provides a physical barrier, maintains skin hydration to keep it soft and pliable, spreads over the hair coat to produce a glossy sheen, contains antimicrobial substances and is immunologically active.

Different minerals for maintaining healthy skin and coat condition…
Some of the different minerals required for a healthy coat and skin include:
Zinc
Zinc is a transition metal found throughout the body. It is present in most tissues in relatively low concentrations. Zinc is the co-factor for around 200 zinc-containing enzymes involved in cell replication, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and membrane structure. It is essential for the transport of vitamin A in the blood and plays an important role in reproduction. It is also crucial for collagen and keratin synthesis and is therefore a fundamental element involved in skin and coat health, and wound healing.
Common sources of zinc: Whole grain cereals and meat are rich natural sources of zinc. Zinc can also be found in mineral salts such as zinc sulphate and zinc oxide.
Deficiency of zinc: Absolute dietary deficiencies of zinc are considered rare in dogs, but a relative deficiency may occur when the availability of dietary zinc is reduced through nutrient interactions or where intestinal absorption of zinc is impaired through disease or genetic factors.
Intestinal absorption of zinc can be inhibited by:

  • Excessive levels of dietary calcium, iron and copper, which compete with zinc for intestinal absorption sites.
  • High levels of dietary phylate, found in cereal-based diets, which chelates zinc.
  • Inherent defects of zinc absorption.
  • Prolonged enteritis or other malabsorption syndromes.

Most cases of zinc-responsive dermatosis in dogs have been associated with the feeding of poor quality, cereal or soy-based dry food, the effects of which may be exacerbated in some animals by other predisposing factors.
Lethal acrodermatitis is an inherited disease of English Bull Terriers in which a defect of zinc metabolism is thought to give rise to severe systemic, as well as cutaneous, signs that resemble experimental zinc deficiency. The condition is unresponsive to zinc supplementation and is usually fatal, with an average survival time of seven months for affected puppies.
Pathophysiology: Zinc plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of cellular metabolism, a number of which are concerned with the maintenance of a healthy skin and coat. It is an integral component of a wide range of metallenzymes and, as a cofactor for RNA and DNA polymerases, its presence is of particular importance in rapidly dividing cells, including those of the epidermis. Zinc is also essential for the biosynthesis of acids, participates in both inflammatory and immune systems and is involved in the metabolism of vitamin A.
Clinically, two zinc-responsive dermatologic syndromes are recognised, although there is considerable overlap between the two:
Clinical signs: Signs of zinc deficiency are confined mainly to the skin, but may be accompanied by:

  • Growth and other abnormalities in young animals.
  • Depressed appetite due to a diminished sense of taste and smell.
  • Weight loss, impaired wound healing, conjunctivitis, and keratitis.
  • Generalised lymphadenopathy, particularly in young animals.

Cutaneous signs are characterized by:

  • Focal areas of erythema, alopecia, scale, and crust with underlying suppuration, which develop symmetrically particularly around the face, extremities, mucocutaneous junctions and pressure points of the limbs.
  • Hyperkeratotic footpads with deep fissures.
  • Dull and harsh hair coat.
  • Secondary pyoderma.

Copper
Untitled-11The bodies of dogs and cats contain a very small amount of copper. In 1984, Meyer reported a total body content of copper to be 7.3 mg per kg body weight in young dogs.
Role of copper in the body: Copper facilitates the intestinal absorption of iron and its incorporation into haemoglobin. It is an active element in many enzymes. Copper plays an important role in reducing cellular damage caused by free radicals. Copper is also involved in the synthesis of collagen in the tendons and the myelin within the system. Copper also participates in the synthesis of melanin, which is a hair pigment. Common sources of copper: Foods that have high copper content include meat (lamb, pork, duck) and protein rich grains (peas, lentils, soy). Copper may also be added to pet food in the form of mineral salts, however, copper oxide is a poorly available form of this mineral. Deficiency of copper: Copper deficiency can result in anaemia, loss of hair pigmentation and hyperextension of the lower limb. Copper is stored in the liver and although toxicity is rare, certain breeds are pre-disposed to copper storage disease, for example, Bedlington Terriers; involved in tissue, pigment and protein synthesis Other minerals and vitamins Other minerals and several vitamins also may have an effect on skin and coat health. A deficiency in iodine, responsible for a normal functioning thyroid, will create skin lesions and poor hair coat. Although rare, vitamin deficiencies can result in several skin and coat problems. Vitamin A is important in proper keratinisation of the skin. Deficiencies will result in hyperkeratinisation, poor hair coat, and alopecia. Vitamin B-complex vitamins, namely biotin, will manifest similar deficiency symptoms as vitamin A. However, most lesions of the skin characteristically occur around the face and eyes. A deficiency is rare, although it may be caused in animals fed with raw eggs due to avidin, a protein that binds biotin, rendering it unavailable to the animal.

 

(Dr RK Yogi, Dr AK Singh, Dr Preeti, Dr AP Singh and Dr SS Kullu are research scholars at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal).

Nutritional Approach to Canine Osteoarthritis

Canine OA is a common cause of joint failure with stiffness, loss of mobility, and varying degrees of inflammation and pain. Degenerative joint disease (DJD) also known as osteoarthritis (OA), or simply arthritis is a debilitating disorder affecting a wide range of animal species and humans.

 

12What is Canine OA?
Osteoarthritis is the disease of synovial joint with the  involvement of synovial cavity and articular cartilage which covers the bone. It is associated with pain, lameness and discomfort to the dog.

 

The most critical part of the joint is synovial membrane which has got synoviocytes that secretes synovial fluid, and articular cartilage which covers the bone and consists of chondrocytes and matrix. Viscosity of the synovial fluid is important for sustaining and maintaining the joint. Articular cartilage and synovial fluid both are live tissues and are in the dynamic state.
Osteoarthritis can be a result of trauma followed by infection.

 

Diagnosis
The beginning stages of OA are not readily apparent; but, once the deterioration has reached the synovial membrane and/or the bone 1234beneath joint cartilage, painful inflammation begins. The first visible sign of osteoarthritis pain may come in the form of a limp, sensitivity to touch in a certain area (for example, along the spine); a decrease in activity; stiffness (especially after rest); difficulty getting up, lying down, or climbing stairs, or an inability to jump.

 

 

 

Joint Supplements and how they work
Doctors generally follow the multimodal treatment, thus starting from diet management to reduce weight, physiotherapy,
Untitled-3anti-inflammatory drugs along with NSAID and antibiotics. While the multimodal treatment has got definite role in managing the lifestyle of the dog, long run use of NSAID and antibiotics has its own pit falls. Here comes the requirement of nutritional supplements which can help in managing the joint and reducing dependence on NSAID and other drugs. As a pet parent, one can always look for the following in nutritional supplements:

 

Glucosamine HCL or Glucosamine Sulphate: Glucosamine is an amino monosaccharide unit of glycosaminoglycan, which is the building Untitled-4block of the cartilage matrix seen within joints. It is the raw material for making GAG. The actual chemical makeup of glucosamine accounts for its favorable absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and favorable cartilage reaction. It can be added as a chemical molecule or even as part of shell fish or any marine source. Glucosamine HCL is a smaller molecule so bioavailability is more.
Chondroitin Sulphate: Is GAG  (Glycosaminoglycans) used for articular cartilage synthesis? All GAGs not only provide the raw material for production of articular cartilage but also play a role as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, thus reducing the dependence
on NSAID.

 

The efficacy of the raw material is dependent on the purity or the grade of the raw material. Some of the companies use human grade raw material for early and sustained efficacy.
Glucosamine/Chondroitin Combination
When given in combination, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate reportedly support cartilage production and protect existing cartilage by inhibiting enzymes in the joints that break down cartilage. Glucosamine also works as raw material for chondroitin synthesis in the body.

 

Methylsulphonylmethane (MSM)
A source of organic sulphur in a form the body can readily use, MSM is also thought to have some anti-inflammatory and pain reducing actions. It is thought to help maintain flexibility of ligaments.

 

Dimethyl Glycine (DMG) is a molecule which is very important for early recovery of the joint. It works as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, metabolic enhancer, promotes immunity, improves cardiovascular function; thus helping the joint to recover fast from injury or osteoarthritis. Manganese Amino Acid chelate has got a possible role in prevention of osteoporosis, collagen formation, synthesis of GAG, thus helpful in supporting treatment of osteoarthritis. All these molecules help in supporting the treatment of arthritis, osteoarthritis, hip dysplacia, following joint surgery, cruciate ligment injury, joint pain, vertebral disc conditions and other associated conditions. These are effective in dogs of all breeds and ages.

 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Specific Omega-3 fatty acids, known as Poly unsaturated fatty acids, are often recommended in pets because they have far-reaching benefits in the body. These fatty acids are very well known for protecting heart health but also support the brain/nervous system, the kidneys, skin health, the immune system, and the joints, especially beneficial in performance dogs. It is available in Green lipped mussel. Nutritional management of osteoarthritis is very important for early recovery and lifestyle management of affected dogs, hence strongly recommended.
– By Col Virendra Kumar MSD Animal Health