Reasons to consider CLIMATE for your breed

Pallavi Bhattacharya

Pallavi Bhattacharya

While choosing a dog breed, many of us simply just refuse to consider any of our very own Indian breeds as many a time Pedigree dogs are seen as a status symbol. What we should carefully consider before getting a dog, is whether or not, he’ll be at ease with the oppressively warm Indian weather.


The sun shines relentlessly over the Indian subcontinent in summer. Breeds hailing from cold countries find this temperature a torture. Dr Sachin Nagare, a vet in Vasai, says, “During the summer season, in every vet’s clinic, many dogs are treated for heat related diseases. Some even suffer strokes because of the heat.”


Breeds unsuitable for warm climate…
Dr Vijay M Patil, another vet from Vasai, from his professional experience has found that the Afghan Hound, St Bernard and Tibetan Mastiff are most unsuited to Indian climate. He explains, “These breeds if kept in India, cannot enjoy life both quantitatively and qualitatively because of climatic conditions. Dogs who would have lived for 12 to 13 years if they were in their native cold countries, develop metabolic and tropical diseases in India, besides finding the heat extremely uncomfortable.”  Even if you think that keeping the air conditioner on will make the temperature for your pet favourable, you may be wrong. Dr Vijay reasons, citing an example, “A St Bernard is at ease between 0oC to 8oC. It is tough to be in the same room with the dog in such a low temperature. Also, when the dog will go for walks, he will be unable to be in air conditioned ambience.” A dog may also lose appetite as he finds the heat bothersome. He may opt to sleep on his belly, spreading out his hind legs instead because of the heat, because of which arthritis may develop because of the unnatural posture.  Apart from the dog breeds mentioned by Dr Vijay, other canine species unsuited to Indian climate include: Malamute, Tibetan Terrier, Siberian Husky, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Bulldog, Irish Setter, Rottweiler and Mastiff. Dogs who are enormous in size, like a Tibetan Mastiff and St Bernard, may find it tough to exercise in the heat, which may give rise to behavioural and health problems. These dogs need proper nutrition. Another theory is that dog breeds with faces which are pushed in like the Pug, Bulldog and Boxer find it tough to breathe in oppressively hot conditions. Dogs with a thick coat of fur may also find the Indian heat sweltering. The American Eskimo Dog is absolutely not meant for India.


Pawfect breeds for India…
The breeds best suited to Indian climate are obviously the dogs who have been bred on Indian soil since time immemorial. Dr Vijay explains, “Indian dog breeds have genetically altered their makeup over the decades to get acclimatised to the Indian climate.” The Indian street dog is the fittest of all breeds to bear with Indian weather conditions.  Gautam Hegde, script writer from Mumbai and a pet parent to a stray Indian dog named Zoey, says, “My dog seems to possess powerful immunity and a strong digestive system. Strays at times may be given the food which humans eat. Also, they don’t get affected much by the weather, unlike foreign breeds.” Surely strays are very friendly and vigilant canines. They seldom suffer from genetic illnesses like hip dysplasia as their breed has survived the litmus test of the survival of the fittest. Strays can live up to 15 years. Unfortunately, they roam about in the streets, eating from garbage. We could give them a loving home instead of breeds who suffer miserably because of the Indian weather.” India is a gigantic nation with varied climatic conditions. A dog who has lived and thrived in the cold Himalayas may find it tough to cope with the temperature of the humid South Indian plains. So, it’s best to allow dog breeds to be raised at their native places.


More Indian Pedigree dogs to choose from
The following dog breeds have flourished for years in India:
• Bawa Bakharwal Dog who is native of Jammu & Kashmir.
• Bully Kutta Guard Dog who is originated from Punjab and Sindh.
• Chippiparai who is mainly found around the Periyar Lake.
• Combai or Bear Hound found in South India.
• Gaddi Kutta found in the Western Himalayas.
• Indian Spitz introduced by the British and have developed the strength to endure the country’s sultry weather.
• Kaikadi, who gets his name from a nomadic tribe in Maharashtra with the same name.
• Kanni found in Tamil Nadu.
• Kumaon Mastiff who is originated from Uttarakhand.
• Mahratta Greyhound, endemic to Maharashtra.
• Mudhol Hound, commonly found in the Deccan plateau.
• Rajapalayam of South India.
• Rampur Greyhound who has originated from Rampur in North India.
• Sinhala Hound from Sri Lanka who is also found in South India.
• Vanjari Hound who is native to Maharashtra.

Towards a perfectly safe Diwali!

As pet parents, we want our pooches to be a part of our celebrations. But, Diwali is one festival that our dogs dread. Every Diwali, there are numerous cases of dogs either hurt or burnt. Let’s make Diwali safe for our pooches.

by Varsha Verma


Diwali is a celebration of good over evil, light over darkness. It is a pleasure to see beautiful lighting adorning the buildings and houses within. The environment is euphoric – various delicacies, lovely clothes, exchange of gifts and sweets- and of course everything done to welcome Goddess Lakshmi to our homes. We all look forward to this occasion. One thing that spoils the festival is noisy crackers. They are not just a nuisance to us but more for our canine friends, who have an acute sense of hearing.


untitled-17How crackers affect our furry friends?
Animals are terrified of fireworks. They become stressed on hearing loud noises. They tremble, drool, bark, howl and try to hide or get out of the house. They refuse to eat and may even lose bladder or bowel control. Sometimes, while trying to escape from home, they may accidentally get hurt as well. Incidents of dog abuse are still prevalent; just out of mere fun, some children and sadists tie crackers to the strays. This burns them severely and results in various behavioural issues in these poor animals.


How to make Diwali safe for dogs?
Create awareness: Prevention is always better than cure. Ask your neighbours and friends not to use loud crackers as they are harmful to both humans and dogs.
Desensitise the dog: Start preparing your dog for Diwali. Expose him to low levels of noise and then gradually increase the intensity. Make sure not to expose him to very high levels, as this may harm his hearing ability.
Exercise him before crackers time: Take your dog out for his daily exercise an hour before the fireworks, so that he is tired and less anxious.
Feed him early: A hungry dog will be more anxious. So, feed him well before the fireworks start.
Do not take him out when crackers are on: Keep your dog inside the home, with the doors and windows properly closed so that he cannot run out. Leave a TV or radio on.
Make him comfortable: Give him things he like – treats, toys, his bed, etc.
Do not disturb him: If your pooch hides under the bed or any of his hiding places, let him be there.
Do not cajole him: Do not soothe or comfort your dog, it will only increase the problem. Be in control and be cheerful.
Consult your vet: If you have a senior dog or a nervous dog, talk to your vet before Diwali, who can recommend a light sedative for him.
Put a name tag on his collar: Do not forget to put a name tag on his collar, so that in case he runs out, you can still find him.
Give shelter to strays: If possible, give shelter to strays in your neighbourhood, who would also be very stressed due to loud noises. Give them food and water and in case you see any of them injured, call for an ambulance.
Last but not the least: Be with your pet. Your presence is a great assurance that they are safe.


Did you know?
untitled-18In Nepal, Diwali is also celebrated with great fervour. But, what makes this festival unique is the fact that the second day of this festivity is celebrated as Karuk Thira, the worship of dogs. It is believed that dogs guard the gates of heaven. So, as a special recognition, all dogs are honoured this day, be it pet dogs or strays. People apply tika on their forehead and drape garlands of fresh flowers around their neck. Then, they are treated to excellent food. It actually a dog’s day!!!

Making the world LIVABLE & LOVABLE!

Rohan with young ones

Rohan with young ones

Among the thousands of dogs roaming around the street, how many do we actually turn to look at? And how many do we give a second thought? Meet Rohan Rawat, who serves the strays and rescues them in Delhi, Noida andGurgaon (NCR) and Bengaluru.



Rohan rescues them from abusive homes, from the streets where they are abandoned, or simply the stray ones who get hurt by random vehicles. But, Rohan Rawat wasn’t like this before!

The trigger…Rohan lost his beloved Labrador Tuffy in August 2007, to tick fever, a seemingly natural death.. On his way to bury Tuffy, he saw an injured dog and he rushed the poor creature to the hospital. Torn by grief over his loss, he took this as a sign from Tuffy, that this was his karma, this was why he was here. He was here to save those who can never speak. And as Bangaloreans call him, to be the ‘Voice of the Voiceless’. With this, he started his journey and started ‘Karma for Tuffy,’ giving life to hundreds of animals, resurrecting them from the jaws of death.


Karma for Tuffy…
What unites everyone at Karma for Tuffy is their deep faith in the idea that service to every being is the finest act of goodwill, and brings the highest ‘Karma’. With this in mind, Rohan and every volunteer at Karma for Tuffy strive to protect animals and provide them care, giving their lives to these beautiful creations of God.


Rescuing, resuscitating and fostering…
From pet lover to animal activist, Rohan has rescued countless number of street dogs, bulls, stray cats, birds, and a lot of other animals in the past eight years. He has saved abandoned dogs, dogs who are left on the streets by those who thought they could not continue to take care of such a huge responsibility. He has taken these dogs, injured, scared and hungry, and put them in shelters first, resuscitating their health and then putting them in foster care.


Other activities…
Working with other NGOs, he organises fund raisers for vaccination drives and protests against animal abuse. And his work is not limited to dogs, although it revolves around these playful, loyal creatures. His ultimate goal is complete sterilisation, because he feels that one dog neutered now, saves the abuse of 65,000 strays in the next five years. Rohan says, “I want the escalation of birth control, because that is the only way to prevent cruelty. The lesser there are, the more people will value them and love them.” Moreover, Rohan believes in striving to give the less fortunate animals, equally comfortable homes, and organises adoption drives, encouraging people to take home a stray or an abandoned dog.


Road ahead…
With a vision of setting up a 24×7 hospital for animals, he works towards goodwill, because animals can have emergencies, as much as humans do.


The love for dogs is etched forever…

Rohan on the rescue

Rohan on the rescue

Life is a long journey between ‘Human being’ and ‘Being human’…Let’s all take at least a step daily to cover the distance….” Rohan roams around with a rescue kit in his car, apart from all the regular dog foods. Although, one call of his can get at least ten volunteers helping the dog, he believes in doing the work himself. He feels he needs to do this, for Tuffy and for himself. ‘It’s my karma, I want to touch them, love them, feel their pain, and touch their soul. I am on a mission…a mission to make this cruel world better for animals, a little more livable, a little more lovable,’ concludes Rohan.

Indoor fun for your dog on rainy days

Kritika Manchanda

Kritika Manchanda

When the temperature is too high or when rain pours or when it is too cold, playing indoors with your pet is the best option. Here’s how to have fun indoors.





A lot of pet parents think that play sessions are only limited for outdoors. But, there are a lot of games and activities that you and your pet can engage in and spend quality time indoors.



2Fun at the stairs: If you have a flight of stairs in the house, it can be turned into an all season play area. Just ensure that the surface is not slippery and the area is well protected so that your dog doesn’t run away. You can run up and down a few times with your pet and it’ll double up as a game and exercise. You could also sit at the top of the staircase and play fetch with your pet.






Hide n Seek: If you haven’t played hide n seek with your pet, you don’t know what you are Untitled-133missing in life. Hide n seek is an amazing way to exercise your pet’s mind and body. Hide somewhere and let the other family members ask your pet to find you. Keep some treats handy for rewards, cuddles should be complimentary!




Tug of war: Sometimes playing tug of war with your pet is the best therapy. A lazy hot weekend or a bad day at work, tug of war has the superpower to make everyone happy, and to make your pet happier. Just make sure your pet does not gets aggressive while playing. If he shows signs of aggression, leave the game right away.


Go Wild and Freeze: Go Wild and Freeze is a very popular dog training game. You need to jump around, dance and basically, go wild until your pet gets excited. All of a sudden stop moving and ask your pet to sit or stay or perform any other behavior he knows best. The moment he does it, start dancing and hopping around again. Don’t forget to reward good behavior and do not to be too strict if something goes wrong.


Fruity Games: In warm weather, your dog’s appetite might somewhat reduce. Feeding them fresh fruits and veggies is a great option to keep them nourished and hydrated. What if we told you that you can incorporate feeding fruits and vegetables during your pet’s play time? Cut small pieces of their favorite fruit and hide them at various spots in the house. Let them sniff and find out before relishing the treats. You can also play aim and catch with small bites. Just make sure that your pet doesn’t choke. Mix fruit or vegetable puree with some water and freeze it in ice trays. Give your pet these treats and let them have a great time licking, playing, nibbling….


Kibble Hunt: Put the nosy babies at work and let the kibble magic take over. Hide small pieces of kibble at various places in the house. Make sure these places are easily accessible by your pet. Let your pet sniff and find out the kibble. Initially choose easy to find places till they get a knack of it. Also if they find the kibble, it’ll be a great encouragement to keep going.


Untitled-144Bath time fun: What can be better than splashing in water in this heat? If your pooch is a water baby, you can get a tub for him to splash water and play around. If this isn’t possible, go the desi way with a pipe or a hand held shower. Bathing your dog is a great way to spend time and strengthen the bond. Just be careful that he shouldn’t hurt himself during the playing and splashing.




Playing with toys: To keep your pet engaged indoors you can get a variety of dog toys. Food dispensing toys, a squeaky ball or a soft toy, you will be the best judge to know your pet’s preferences.


Turn grooming sessions fun: You can also turn grooming session into a fun activity. Massage your pet, play around with treats, comb and brush, there are so many things that can be included in the indoor fun time with pets. The good thing is that the indoor play session will not only protect them from the severe heat or cold, but will also be a great learning. Playing is beneficial for your pets. It keeps them physically active and mentally alert.

PawsomeStay is here!

Tails have been wagging across Mumbai at the launch of, an unique alternative to kennels and pet hostels, which connects dog sitters with pet parents to provide a safe and happy temporary home for dogs while their pet parents are away.


Saagar Kambli, founder and top dog of, talks to Dogs & Pups shedding some light on how this service could benefit our community. “The basic idea is if you need to get away on a last minute work trip or if you’re traveling can provide a list of registered dog sitters in your neighbourhood that will offer their home for your dog to stay,” Saagar says, adding that is super convenient and folks in Mumbai have already started using this service.


Happy pet parents
Neel, a resident of Mumbai, thinks is like a dream come true, “My pet dog Browny was cared of like a dear family member; and we felt that he was safe and secure at The sitter at also sent us pictures and daily updates, which was extremely comforting. I thank my friend who recommended me such facility in the city.” Another user, Unnati says, “I really like the service at It’s quick and easy to sign up, find a sitter that fits your needs in your area. We’ve been very happy with the sitters. They’re really perfect dog sitters because they’re already dog lovers.”


Brand new launchUntitled-100
When asked about what instilled him to take up such start-up business on comfortable stay for pet dogs, Saagar replies that is not just a business but a responsibility to provide comfort and wellbeing for pets. “Also, the thing is that I always hated leaving my dogs in a hostel or kennel when I traveled. My dogs always came back home a little scared and traumatised after every stay. So, I thought if I feel there is need for something better then I’m sure other pet parents feel the same way,” he narrates.
When the idea of opening a comfortable stay for pet dogs hit Saagar, he decided why not make a match site for sitters and dogs. “I felt there was an urgent need to address this issue as dogs are literally like family and is more an attempt to make sure that these beautiful creatures get a comfortable stay even while their pet parents travel,” he explains, adding, “And at the same time the pet parents are not worried or feel guilty about leaving their dog behind for a few days. It is almost like your dog gets to go on an awesome vacation.”


Pawfect pet sitters is a place to find an appropriate sitter. “That’s exactly why it is most important to us that our dog sitters are dog lovers first and trained sitters later; having said that I must add that every sitter at is thoroughly screened and interviewed before he/she can become a registered sitter,” asserts Saagar. In addition, pet parents have the option of rating the sitters according to their personal experience. It is the commitment of to make sure that their customers find what they are looking for and that’s the peace of mind they get while they are travelling.




To be wagged more
Mumbai is a very dog friendly city with full of dog lovers. Sensing this fact, shares the same values and the value proposition of providing a real home for a dog will resonate in any caring and responsible pet parents. “We had close to 700 followers on social media within two weeks of our website launch. It told us that we are on the right track and dogs all across Mumbai city would be waging their tails soon enough,” concludes Saagar, with a smile. assures pet parents vet assistance as well, if the dog falls sick while his parents are away. Moreover, for convenience of pet parents and faster connectivity, is launching an app soon. (For further information, write in or call on: 8108002222).



Cell-Pet: An oxygen supplement for overall wellbeing of your pet

Cell-Pet is a unique, proprietary ionic formula containing dissolved oxygen, minerals, enzymes and amino acids – and features an exceptional water-splitting cell-oxygenating process.


What is Cell-Pet?
Cell-Pet is a liquid, highly-concentrated, super-energised, colloidal mineral and nutritional supplement, which you can add to the drinking water of your pet on a daily basis, in order to maintain its peak performance and general well-being. Cell-Pet is not a medicine. As a nutritional supplement, it provides your pet with a constant stream of essential building blocks (for example, oxygen, minerals, etc.) so that its systems can optimally carry out their functions of energising, cleansing, building, balancing and protecting living tissue every day.


How does Cell-Pet achieve results?
It breaks down the water molecule to Hydrogen (plus) and oxygen (minus) that oxygen atom oxygen (minus) is attracted to the free radicals oxygen (plus), forming a molecule of pure oxygen at cellular level. As soon as your pet drinks water with Cell-Pet, it starts working in its most amazing and unique manner, on the physical, electromagnetic, chemical and biological levels of your pet.
Cell-Pet Oxygen: It (from splitting water molecule) is used in production of metabolic Energy, and for oxidizing toxins and metabolic body waste for effective elimination.
Cell-Pet Hydrogen: It (from splitting water molecule) is used for irrigating, building and strengthening cells and organs, preventing inflammation, moistening lung surface for gas diffusion, and regulating body temperature.


Benefits of Cell-Pet
Acting as an oxygen therapy in the body: It increases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood stream.
Increases cellular respiration: Provides oxygen and hydrogen to the individual cells of the body.
Natural antibiotic: It kills infectious bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, without harming beneficial microorganisms needed for your body.
Energy boosting properties: Helps in detoxification of cellular wastes, allowing the body to function clean and efficient, further increasing energy levels over time.
Help in deeply detoxifying the body: As Cell-Pet splits water molecule and forms nascent hydrogen and nascent oxygen, it helps liver in its detoxification process by producing oxygenation in the hepatic cells.
Metabolic efficiency catalyst: Enhances nutrient absorption and increases metabolism.
Balances the body metabolism: It can bring about an appropriate balance and activate the body’s rapid healing response.
Great for treating water: Add two drops to a gallon of water and set the mixture aside for four to eight hours. The result is clean
drinking water.
Produces extraordinary results by preventing atherosclarosis: It’s designed to replenish proper blood levels of these nutrients and enhance the metabolic benefit of other supplements and nutrients as well as assist in the elimination of toxins and toxic waste materials from the body.
Balancing the body’s system: Works at the physical level by providing the body with essential minerals for the constitution of the physical body; at the electrical and electro-magnetic levels; at the biological level by enhancing natural biological processes; and also on the chemical level by supplying amino acids to the body for building protein.
Strengthen the immune system: Raises the frequencies of all organs, making them more resistant to the lower frequencies of viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.
Recover faster from injuries: Acts as a free electron donor, repairing tissue on contact at the cellular level.
Cell-Pet is a registered blend of natural plant-sourced minerals, nutrients and electrolytes in ionic colloidal suspension, and proprietary elements that supply controlled nascent oxygen and hydrogen at cellular level. All ingredients are organic (but not certified as yet) and totally non-toxic. They are cryogenically, not chemically, extracted to ensure maximum pureness and potency. No alcohol or glucose is used in the product.
Cell-Pet is also hypo-allergenic.
Cell-Pet can be taken in conjunction with other remedies, medications and additives because it increases their bio-availability and effectiveness.

How do you give Cell-Pet to your pet?
Mix the Cell-Pet in 20 ml purified water to super energise your pet drink. Make sure your pet finishes the whole water.

Daily Water Intake Days 1 & 2 Days 3 & 4 Days 5 & 6 Day 7 Onwards Small Breed 1 drop 1 drop 2 drops 3 drops Medium Breed 1 drop 2 drops 4 drops 6 drops Large Breed 2 drops 3 drops 5 drops 8 drops

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Protecting Pups from Parvovirus

Available vaccines have controlled the transmission of parvovirus infection, but sometimes, even vaccinated dogs get infected and die due to this disease. Better understanding of the disease and sources of the virus by pet parents can prevent and reduce the spread of this disease and untimely loss of their altruistic companions.


Dr Vinod Kumar Singh

Dr Vinod Kumar Singh

Dr Rahul Singh

Dr Rahul Singh

Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most common problems in dogs, causing massive mortality in puppies. The disease is highly infectious, depicted by diarrhoea which is frequently haemorrhagic. This virus affects dogs of all ages, but puppies are most commonly affected. CPV infection is manifested in two forms: the intestinal form and the cardiac form. Cardiac form is fatal and affects young puppies.


Who can get affected?


  • Young (6 week to 6 months), unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated dogs are most vulnerable.
  • Breeding kennels and dog shelters that house a large number of inadequately vaccinated puppies are particularly hazardous places to acquire infection.
  • Sufficient colostrum ingestion by puppies born to a dam with CPV antibodies is protected from infection for the first few weeks of life; however, susceptibility to infection increases as maternally acquired antibodies fade.
  • Improper vaccination protocol and vaccination failure can also lead to a CPV infection.
  • Immunosuppressive diseases or drugs also increase the likelihood of infection.
  • Certain breeds of dogs like Rottweiler, Doberman Pinschers, Pit Bulls, Labrador Retrievers, German Shepherds, English Springer Spaniels, and Alaskan sled dogs, are particularly vulnerable to the disease.
  • Male dogs more than six month old are more susceptible than female dogs for this infection.

How CPV affects dogs?
The virus affects in two ways:
1. Diarrhoea and vomiting, resulting in extreme fluid loss and dehydration, leading to shock and death.
2. Loss of the intestinal barrier allows bacterial invasion of potentially the entire body resulting in septicemia and death.


There are three main manifestations of Parvovirus infection. The onset of clinical signs is usually sudden, often 12 hours or less. The incubation period varies from 3 to 10 days.

1. Asymptomatic- No clinical signs expressed and animal shed virus in his excretion. This carrier form is common in vaccinated and adult dogs.
2. Intestinal- The virus has affinity towards rapidly dividing cells, such as those lining the gastrointestinal tract and causes extreme damage and sloughing of the intestinal tract lining. This can leave the patient open to secondary bacterial infection and death rate of 16-35 percent has been reported. Most of the affected dogs are less than one year old and between 6-20 weeks old.
3. Cardiac – This form is much common than the intestinal form due to extensive vaccination. Severe inflammation and necrosis of the heart muscle causes breathing difficulty and death in very young puppies. Older dogs who survive this form have scarring in the heart muscle.


Clinical signs…
Parvovirus infected dogs show variable symptoms with varying severity. The most common form of the disease is the gastroenteritis form. Clinical signs of enteritis usually develop within 3-7 days post infection. Severe and bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, anorexia, severe weight loss, lethargy characterises parvovirus enteritis with lowered WBC counts. Eyes and mouth may become evidently red and the heart may beat too swiftly. Infected dogs are depressed, feverish, dehydrated or may also have a low body temperature. Physical examination of dog may reveal dilated fluid filled intestinal loops. Abdominal pain necessitates further investigation to rule out the possible complication of intussusceptions. Acute parvovirus gastroenteritis can occur in dogs irrespective of age, breed or sex. The disease progresses at a very fast pace and death can occur as early as two days after the onset of the disease. A less common form of the disease causes myocarditis. This form is more common in puppies less than eight weeks of age and is characterised by breathing difficulties leading to death.


How CPV spreads?
Canine parvovirus is resistant to many common disinfectants and can persist indoors at room temperature for up to two months and outdoors for up to five months, if protected from sunlight and desiccation. CPV can spread through following ways:

  • In acutely infected dogs, the virus is shed in extremely large amounts in faeces within 4-5 days of exposure, throughout the period of illness and for approximately 10 days after clinical recovery.
  • Veterinary hospital and clinics are also likely places to pickup the virus due to contamination of premises by excretions
    of infected animals coming for treatment.
  • Contaminated feed and water is another major route of disease transmission.
  • Dogs can also pickup virus through contact inanimate belongings of infected dogs.
  • Mechanical transmission by insects and rodents may also occur.


Parvovirus infection should be differentially diagnosed with other enteric viruses such as coronavirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, morbillivirus, reovirus and norovirus which also express similar type of clinical manifestations. The most efficient way to diagnose parvovirus infection is to identify either the virus or virus antigens in stools by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen test. A complete physical examination, abdominal radiographs and abdominal ultrasounds aids in determining the severity of the disease. A chemical blood profile and a complete blood cells count may also be performed. Low WBC levels in association with bloody stools are indicative of CPV infection. Serum biochemical tests and urine analysis may reveal elevated liver enzymes and electrolyte imbalances.


Radiography helps rule out other likely causes for vomiting and diarrhoea, while an abdominal ultrasound may reveal enlarged lymph nodes in the groin, or throughout the body, and fluid-filled intestinal segments. Alternative methods of detecting CPV in faeces include virus isolation in cell culture, identification using electron microscopy and viral nucleic acid detection by PCR. Sero-diagnosis of CPV infection requires demonstration of a 4-fold increase in serum IgG titer over a 14-day period or detection of IgM antibodies in the absence of recent (within four weeks) vaccination.


Diseased dogs require intensive veterinary management. Fluid therapy for replacing fluids loss through vomiting and diarrhoea is unarguably the most efficient treatment. Intravenous fluids and medications to control vomiting and diarrhoea are often required, but in less severe cases, subcutaneous or oral fluids may be given. In severe cases, a blood plasma transfusion can be done. Puppies and dogs should be given intravenous fluid support during vomiting and never be permitted to eat or drink until the vomiting has stopped. To check secondary bacterial infections antibiotic therapy is generally prescribed.
Dogs must be monitored for development of hypokalemia and hypoglycemia. If electrolytes and serum blood glucose concentration cannot be routinely monitored, empirical supplementation of intravenous fluids with potassium (potassium chloride 20-40 mEq/L) and dextrose (2.5-5 percent) is suitable. If GI protein loss is severe, colloid therapy should be considered. The outcome depends upon the virulence of the specific strain of parvovirus, the age and immune status of the dog, and how quickly the treatment is started. Most pups that are under good veterinary care recover without complications. In dogs with severe symptoms, antiserum against endotoxins is recommended. Corticosteroids may be given if the animal is in shock. After the intestinal symptoms begin to subside, a broad-spectrum deworming agent is often used.


Prevention and control…

  • To limit environmental contamination and further spreads to other susceptible animals, dogs with confirmed or suspected CPV enteritis must be kept in strict isolation.
  • All infected or suspected surfaces should be cleaned with a solution of dilute bleach in a 1:32 dilution and must be left on the contaminated surface for 20 minutes before being rinsed. The same dilution bleach solutions can be used as footbaths. The bleach solution should be used on bedding, dishes, kennel floors and other impervious materials suspected for contamination.
  • Clean and disinfect the quarters of infected animal thoroughly.
  • Isolate young puppies as much as possible from other dogs and from potential sources of infection until they complete the vaccination.
  • The canine parvovirus vaccine is considered a core vaccine i.e. all dogs should receive this vaccine. Vaccinate puppies against parvovirus by subcutaneous injection at 6-8 weeks of age, and revaccinating every three weeks until the puppy is 16-20 weeks of age. A booster is given at one year of age and every 1-3 year afterwards.


(Dr Vinod Kumar Singh, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology and Dr Rahul Kumar, Department of Veterinary Pathology, belong to College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, DUVASU, Mathura.)