GID: causes, treatment and prevention

GID is a common disease in dogs. But such problems can be avoided if you vaccinate your pet regularly. Dr. Hitesh Swali gives tips to take care your pet’s health.

Gastrointestinal diseases (GID) often occur in puppies till 6 months of age, although adults can also be affected to a variable percentage. The common symptoms of GID include frequent diarrhoea and vomiting.

It is utmost important to reach the underlying cause for the disease, some of which include:

  • Viral Bacterial
  • Parasitic
  • Diet
  • Environmental

Viral:

Viral Gastroenteritis is the most commonly occurring disease in puppies till 3 months. Of this, Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) and Canine Corona Virus (CCV) are mostly prevalent in puppies. Clinical signs include blood diarrhoea, vomiting, high temperature (103-105oF) and dehydration. This disease lasts for 3-5 days and requires extensive treatment. Treatment?:?Main aim in treating Viral Gastroenteritis is fluid therapy. Dogs suffering from this disease should be fed with lots of clean water. Fluid therapy should be done i/v or s/c to check dehydration. Puppies should be kept in isolation to prevent the disease spreading to other pups. Avoid giving food till diarrhoea and vomiting comes in control. Pups can be given ORS solution to check dehydration. Orally Metronidazole and broad spectrum antibiotics can be given along with anti-emetics such as Metaclopromide according to body weight till your vet can start his treatment.

Prevention?:?CPV and CCV can be prevented by regularly vaccinating the pups. Modified live virus and freeze dried vaccines such as Vanguard-5L, NOBIVAC DHPPiL available in the market should be administered to pups at 6-8 weeks of age after proper deworming has been done. Repeat booster vaccines every 21 days till 3 months of age and thereby annually.

Both male and female dogs should be vaccinated to help pass the passive immunity to the offsprings.

Bacterial:

Bacteria such as Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter are the common bacteria responsible for the diseases in dogs. Characteristic symptoms include vomiting, dysentery with lot of strain during passing stools. Fever is usually mild or absent. This usually happens during travelling or if there is a change in climatic conditions or for puppies who have been exposed to bore well water or have had sea water during picnics. Treatment?:?Usually dogs do respond very well to broad spectrum antibiotics and anti-diarrhoeal. Checking dehydration level is must. Examination of faeces should be done to rule out parasitic involvement.

Prevention?:?Preventing pups from drinking stagnated water is the best way. Pups like to drink water directly from the bathroom which should also be avoided. Carry home water along with you while travelling and during dog shows.

Internal parasites:

The most common round worm is a potential health hazard to humans, you must ensure that the dog is routinely dewormed as they can also act as an intermediate host to certain tape worms, that can pass to humans. In addition to round worms and tape worms, dogs can become infested with more serious intestinal hook worms and whip worms or by microscopic parasites that cause diarrhoea. Treatment?:?Regular deworming for puppies every month till 6 months of age and thereby every 2 months using broad spectrum dewormers such as Drontal plus @1 tablet per 10 kg body weight. Deworming should be done to breeding dogs prior to mating.

Prevention: Regular deworming and examination of stools should be done by the vet at regular intervals. Avoid feeding table scraps and half-cooked meat to pups.

Diet:

Diet plays an important role in the growth of the pup. Any change in diet can lead to lot of Gastroenteritis disorders. Avoid feeding pure milk to puppies. Orphan pups/recovering dogs from chronic diseases should be fed commercially available prescription diet for intestinal disease (for pups Royal Canin-V diet is prescribed).

Environmental:

Dogs and pups are very sensitive to any change in the climate. Owners should take care of pups during summer season and they should give them lots of clean water as summer diarrhoea is very common. Monsoon are the major worry for Bacillary Dysentery/Amoebiosis and Viral Gastroenteritis. Exotic breeds such as St. Bernard, Mastiffs and other giant breeds have lots of problem during summer. If you do spot any of the above symptoms, do contact your veterinarian immediately. Breeds such as Pugs, French Bull dogs, English Bull dogs undergo lot of stress during summers leading to summer diarrhoea and respiratory problems.

(Dr. Hitesh Swali, B.V.Sc & A.H. (Bom) is a veterinary physician and surgeon at Veterinary Dispensary & Antirabic Centre, Mumbai. He can be contacted at 9821120058 or 9821237566.)

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