An insight into Breeding – which is important for all!

Dog breeding means practice of mating selected dogs with intention to produce particular qualities and characteristics in offspring. However, this selective breeding has also led to a rise in various diseases.


Selective breeding…
Selective breeding or close breeding, commonly known as line breeding or inbreeding, results that the number of bad genes in most breeds

exceeds the average number which significantly reduces the genetic variables involved in mating two individual dogs and thereby increases the Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI) which alters the natural defense mechanism of body and finally may lead to various disease manifestations.

Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI)…
This is a mathematical tool that provides a measure of the degree of relatedness of the individuals in any given dog’s pedigree. It is an approximation and not an absolute measure. Individuals with low COIs (less inbred) are more likely to have two different MHC (Major Histocompatabilty Complex) haplotypes. Every individual has a pair of MHC haplotypes which are inherited from each parent.

The immune system…

Dr. MK Singh

Dr. MK Singh

The immune system is governed by the MHC. This cluster of genes is referred to as a ‘complex’ because of their close positioning on one chromosome. This positioning virtually enables it to be inherited as a unit called a

haplotype. MHC enables the immune system to respond precisely against invading infectious agents like bacteria or viruses. It exists in all species of mammals and not only unique to dogs. MHC genes are exceptionally polymorphic, each having many—sometimes as many as 100—different alleles or forms. MHC complexity is an excellent example of the importance of biological diversity—not only among species but also within them. All naturally reproducing species will avoid or significantly limit inbreeding.

Prone to infections…
Inbred individuals are always homozygous in relation to their MHC genes (i.e. the two sets of identical haplotypes received from parent). This situation diminishes the diversity among MHC and thus body’s capability to mount an effective immune response. Such dogs are more prone to infections and are more likely to suffer autoimmune disease or allergies.
Use of popular sires over several generations can play havoc with MHC diversity. Since any individual can only have two MHC haplotypes, if a significant portion of a breed descends from a relative few number of dogs, the whole population may be threatened. Furthermore, this may lead to poor or ineffective utilisation of vaccines.

Consequences of bad breeding in dogs

  • Skin problems
  • Immune system disease
  • Narrow immune response
  • Vaccine inefficacy
  • Blood disorders
  • Neurological, behavioural and sensory
  • Hearing and vision
  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Orthopaedic
  • Affecting other vital organs and systems

Things to note

  • Close breeding must be discouraged by breeders.
  • Avoid the over-use of any individual dog, no matter how fine a specimen he might be.
  • No dog affected with chronic autoimmune disease or serious allergies should be bred.
  • Breeders should be aware of their dogs’ Coefficient of Inbreeding (COIs).
  • Crosses that produce autoimmune disease or allergies should always be discouraged.
  • Recording much information as possible on the allergy and autoimmune disease status of numerous relatives of the dogs.
  • If screening tests are available for a disease, it should always be used before breeding.

Saving – up to us!
The storm is upon us and we can get rid of it. The potential impact of close breeding on dog’s health is enormously great. Even though we are currently unable to eliminate this kind of problem, damage control must be properly instituted. With good record keeping, diligence and foresight the risk of
producing these costly, potentially devastating, and sometimes-fatal affections can be significantly reduced.
(Dr MK Singh is scientist in Immunology Section at Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP).

An insight into the stages of puppy development!

The right time to get a puppy home has a very high impact on the puppy’s behaviour on the first day at her new home or the way she looks at humans. Let’s see how.

Things that happen to a dog during her critical periods have a great impact on the dog’s life at a later stage, yet they seem totally trivial to us and we ignore them. The ages given below, the early critical periods, are a general guideline and apply to most puppies of all breeds. The ages of the later critical periods may vary depending on the dog’s size and breed. The following stages of puppy development:

Neonatal period (from birth to 12 days old): Mainly two main functions during puppy development from birth; obtaining food (nursing), and staying warm. She needs her

Delano Henriques

Delano Henriques

mother and environment to control her body temperature. She has no control over body temperature at this age. She needs physical stimulation to urinate and defecate. Her mother licks her to get her to relieve herself. No sight or hearing, her senses are not yet developed, and are deficient in her senses of taste, smell and touch. She reacts to hot and cold, and to some extent to pain, and to the smell of her mother.

Transition period (from 13 to 20 days old): The new born puppy’s eyes open at about 13 days, but can only see movement and objects from about 21 days. She will begin to crawl forward and backwards, and start walking in a wobbly fashion, a few days later. The first teeth appear at around 20 days, and she begins to bite and chew. Tail wagging also begins at this age, indicating that she is not reliant on sight or hearing, as this is still not fully developed. She begins to react to sound at about 20 days, and is startled by loud sounds, but cannot locate the source. This is a period of rapid physical changes. Over a period of a week, the puppy changes – she hears, walks, has bowel movements without stimulation, keeps warm by herself, etc.

Awareness period (from 21 to 28 days old): This is the first week the pup is able to see and hear properly, this change comes so abruptly, over a period of 24 hours. Therefore the pup needs a 100 percent stable environment. Now she has the greatest need for her mother and a familiar environment. Moving the pups to a new location or weaning them during this period will psychologically scar the pups. The pup’s learning begins during this period. This is the time she learns what it is to be a dog.

Canine socialisation period (from 21 to 49 days old):  The pup now learns the species/specific behaviours that make her a dog. To reach her genetic potential, it is of utmost importance that the pup remains with her litter mates and mother throughout this period. She learns to practice body posture, facial expression, vocalising and the effects this has on her litter mates, mother and other dogs she comes into contact with. Puppies need to interact with other dogs, males and females, and not only the mother. She learns to bark and bite, and to be barked at and be bitten. She learns the real dog behaviour; chase games, greeting behaviour, fighting games, etc. This all teaches her the various body postures required to perform various actions, submissiveness, aggression, initiating play, etc.
During this critical period the pup learns one of the most important lessons of her life, to accept discipline. Unfortunately, breeders think because the mother is now correcting the pup, she doesn’t want her anymore. This is incorrect. The mother will actually ‘set up’ the puppy, so she can discipline her. Personally, I think the seventh week of a pup’s life with her mother and litter mates is the most important. I have witnessed this, time and time again during my years in the dog world as an obedience instructor, that dogs removed from the litter before the last day of the seventh week, day 49, have a permanent scar.

Human socialisation period (from 50 to 84 days):  This is the best time to bring a puppy to her new home. I would say no later than seventy days. This is also the best time to (positively) introduce her to the things she is going to have to live with, like other animals, the vacuum cleaner, home noises, children, and men with beards and hats, etc she must not be frightened by them, so introduce them carefully, gently and positively. Everything she experiences now will have the greatest effect on her more than ever again in her life.
Learning at this age is permanent. This is the best time to start positive, non-compulsive, basic obedience exercise, taking her physical abilities and limited attention span into account. Therefore, make 100 percent sure that if you take your puppy to puppy care classes, that the instructor is qualified and experienced in handling puppies, and their classes correctly.

Fear impact period (8 to 11 weeks): Any traumatic, painful or frightening experience will have a more lasting impact on the pup, than if it had occurred at any other time in her life. It is the pup’s perception of the experience that counts, not that of the pet parent. Make the pup’s trips to the vet a pleasant one, ask your vet to oblige and make it a pleasant experience for her. Under no circumstances should elective surgery such as ear cropping, or hernia repairs, be undertaken at this time in the puppy’s life, unless it is life threatening.
(Delano Henriques started training dogs and counseling their pet parents professionally in 2005. He has done a dog training course in South Africa (2008) and started ‘Delriques Kennels’ which is a boarding and training center for dog.)

Best time to get home…
I hope everyone understands puppy development timeline  that, eight weeks is the best time to get a pup home. But sadly in India, most breeders do not follow these norms and pups come leaving their mothers as early as 25 days. Making it even more important to understand ‘the critical periods of a dog’s life’!
Bringing a pup home a first day guide

(Delano Henriques started training dogs and counseling their pet parents professionally in 2005. He has done a dog training course in South Africa (2008) and started ‘Delriques Kennels’ which is a boarding and training center for dog.)