Ask the Expert : July Aug 12

Q: I am taking care of a dog who met with an accident in November 2011. He had a fracture in lumber region near pelvic girdle but now he is walking. He is suffering from ask the expertanal fistula and urine and stool problem. He is trying to pass stool and urine but in an uncontrolled way. He urinates while walking, sleeping, climbing steps, etc. But when he tries to urinate, he cannot. Please advice.
– Jaya Iyer, Nagpur

Dr KG Umesh: There is a possibility that your dog’s previous injury has resulted in progressive damage to disk material in the area surrounding the spinal cord and/or spinal cord/pelvic injury/inflammation. This may cause weakness or paralysis of the hind limbs and loss of bladder or bowel control depending on location and severity/nature of the damage. To confirm spinal disorder (also rule out other causes) and to determine the location of the lesion, your vet may run blood test, spinal fluid tap, radiographs, CT scan or MRI. Based on the diagnostic tests and neurologic assessment, your veterinarian will determine a prognosis, which is an anticipated outlook for recovery. Dogs vary tremendously in their ability to recover, and in many cases, the only way to know for sure whether recovery is possible is to proceed with treatment (including surgery, if necessary) and nursing care and observe any progress over the next two to six weeks. The spinal cord can take weeks or months to recover. You must be prepared for a long-term commitment if you choose to treat the injury. Perianal fistula is a severe, chronic disease of the area around the anus. Multiple draining tracts are present, which are deep fissures in the skin surrounding the anus. The anal sacs themselves are not involved. Many dogs are affected for no apparent reason. There are no preventative measures to guarantee that the problem never returns. There are medical or surgical options available to manage and cure this problem. Please contact your vet.

Q: My two-year-old male Pomeranian barks excessively, especially when I leave home, when the door bell rings, when the maid picks up the broom to sweep, when somebody new comes in, dogs, etc. Do let me know the reasons for his behaviour and how can I control it.
– Shikha Saxena, Jaipur

Dr KG Umesh: Reasons why your dog barks excessively can be complex and must be determined before you can begin fixing the behaviour. Those reasons vary from dog to dog, but include greeting, play, territory and self defense, sight of other animals, separation from family (anxiety), to get attention and a sudden loud noise. Try identifying what triggers the behaviour and use systematic desensitisation and counter-conditioning techniques. Unfortunately, pet parents often attempt to silence their dog by shouting at him, but because the dog’s communication skills don’t extend to understanding your language, he simply assumes the pet parents are barking too and continues undeterred, or even redoubles the effort. Other dogs discover barking makes their pet parent pay attention to them, if only to shout ‘Quiet!’

Eventually the dog may seem to develop an imagination, and bark at nothing at all, just to get a response from his pet parent. However, the main reason dogs learn to bark excessively at every person who passes their territory is the simple fact that most of those people go away again. The dog doesn’t realise they didn’t want to come in. He thinks he has successfully chased them off.

Some tips to control or reduce excessive barking include socialisation of your pet with other animals and people. Reward is, of course, the best motivation of behaviour, so it’s important to praise the dog while he’s doing the right thing, not afterwards. Exercise and play with your dog regularly. Try to increase non-vocal play (for example, fetch) and exercise. Counter-conditioning is an effective way to stop nuisance barking. That is, create a new, more desirable response to the stimulus, like playing with a chew toy rather than barking. If your dog is defending his territory, try blocking visual/hearing access to intruders on or near territory. Your dog might have anxiety related barking, if so, medication should be considered. Please consult your veterinarian regarding medications that may be useful for your situation. As always, we strongly recommend enrolling your dog in obedience classes. With the knowledge from the classes, teach them a ‘settle’ or ‘quiet’ command to use during desensitisation.

Q: I want to adopt a Great Dane. Please advice me about health problems to watch out for.
– R Kapoor, Mussoorie

Dr KG Umesh: The amount of time taken for a growing puppy to achieve adult bodyweight varies considerably, with larger breeds having a longer growth period (20-24 months) than smaller breeds. Excess feeding/energy and excessive calcium during this growth are associated with an increased incidence of skeletal defects like Hipdysplasia and Osteochondrosis. Great Dane is also susceptible to gastric dilatation-volvulus and dilated cardiomyopathy. Some of the problems may be inherited/congenital, which include atrioventricular valve dysplasia, Subaortic stenosis and Wobbler syndrome. Well, these problems should not discourage anyone to keep this most adorable breed as a family member.

Q: My dog Turbo, a Cocker, continuously scratches and injures himself. On checking, I saw black specks which seemed like flea dirt but could not spot the fleas. How should I manage this?
– Avinash Gulati, Indore

Dr KG Umesh: There are several causes of itching in dogs from infection to parasites. Flea bite allergy is a common cause of itching in pets. It occurs when a flea bites an animal who is allergic to proteins in the flea’s saliva. Non-allergic animals usually develop very mild itchiness at the site of a flea bite for only a brief time after the flea bite. However, animals with flea bite allergy can develop intense itchiness anywhere on the body (most common at lower back). Evidence of fleas consists of finding adult fleas, ‘flea dirt’ (brown-black specks that consist of flea excrement containing digested blood) and/or flea eggs (white specks) on the affected pet or other pets in the household. Animals with flea bite allergy often have only a few fleas or sometimes no fleas on them at all at the time of examination because the fleas are often dislodged as a result of the animal’s excessive scratching, chewing and licking of the skin. Treatment and prevention of flea bite allergy requires the elimination of fleas from the flea allergic pet, the pet’s immediate environment (yard, house), and other dogs and cats in the household with products that kill the adult flea (adulticide therapy) and prevent fleas from reproducing (insect growth regulators). Nowadays, oral or topical (applied to the skin) prescription anti-flea products are given to the pet at home once or twice a month and are very effective. Be sure to use the treatments exactly as prescribed; misuse, or using over-the-counter (nonprescription products) are common reasons for failure to eliminate fleas.

Q: I have a two-month-old Lab. What is the right age and method to neuter him?
– Ashok Rai, Mangalore

Dr KG Umesh: This has been an area of debate for several years. Associations between medical or behavioural conditions and early-age neutering ( 6 months). Today, many shelters and high-volume shelter clinics perform sterilisation surgeries in puppies as early as six to eight weeks of age. The most common surgical methods of contraception are spaying in female dogs or castration in male dogs. Spaying/castration is an irreversible means by which a dog is rendered sterile. The procedure entails complete removal of the uterus and ovaries in females and testicles in male. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you on what exactly is involved with the operation and also on the best time for it to be performed.

Dogs and Pups, July August 2004 Issue

  • Breed Profile
  • Look who’s on teacher’s podium
  • Grooming
  • Health
  • Canine liver disease
  • Organisation
  • Picture perfect
  • Ask the Expert
  • Travel
  • Training
  • Pawtails
  • Save our souls
  • Pawkids Corner

Dogs & Pups, July August 2005 Issue

Just Fur Fun | July Aug 2012

All you kiddies out there, we would love to know more about you and your dog. Do write injust for fun your poems, short stories or anecdotes of your loving doggy and see them splash here. Here is the checklist of information we would love to have, e-mail it to us at

Just Fur Fun!

All About My Buddy:

Our Names are: Khushboo and Niyati Dave

Our Buddy’s Name is: Puchuk

Our Buddy’s Breed is: Labrador

Our Buddy’s Age is: Two years

Our Buddy is: Male

Our Buddy’s Colour is: Fawn

Our Buddy’s Favourite Treat is: Rice

Our Buddy’s First Love: Our mom!

Our Buddy’s Character Certificate Will Say: He is very loving and loves to be around our mom whole day.

BUDDY AND US: (Few of our favourite things)

List of Activities We Like Doing the Most: We play together and go for a walk every day.

What We Indulge on Sundays: We give him a bath, groom him, lie down together and watch TV.

Dogs & Pups, July August 2011 Issue


Sparkling seven!

Breed Profile

Greater Swiss Mountain Dog loving all the way!

Happy, jovial and loving – a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog (GSMD) craves attention and human company. But, this is not the breed for everyone as they need a master with strong leadership skills. If you have the skills to handle him, bingo…you have an ideal family pet.

Lovable Labs!

One of the most popular dog breeds, Labrador Retrievers not only make excellent companions but are also popular as working and assistance dogs.

Play with Royal Canin
How well do you know your puppy?


Mind your manners!

Don’t blame your dog if he is not behaving right…his behaviour problems can stem from the environment he has been reared in, his socialisation and may be even because of your behaviour with him.


Precious paw care…

Just like our feet need care, our dog’s paws also need to be clean and well. Paws can get cut, scratched, ticks, etc and have foreign objects embedded in them. Here’s how to keep a check…

Angels Together

Rainy Day activities for kids and dogs

“It’s raining, it’s pouring, everything is boring!” Rainy days with stir-crazy kids and dogs can try your sanity. When your kids wail that there’s nothing fun to do, have them try some of these simple games with the family dog.

Is salt really bad for dogs?


Thyroid problems
– Canines get affected too!

Sparkling colourful Seven!

Seven is the basis of several auspicious occasions and things in the world. Be it the wonders of the world; continents; colours in the rainbow; days in a week or basic musical notes. Woof! Seven is surely a great number and as we turn seven this month, we decided to share the positive powers of seven with all our proud pet parents.

Seven ways to make the most of your vet visit

Picture Perfect

FAQs on Osteoarthritis in dogs

Osteoarthritis is a chronic, progressive, degenerative and painful joint disease in dogs. Here are a few FAQs on the same.


Shine even when it pours…

Monsoon is a time to enjoy with your doggies. Unlike summers where it’s too hot or the winters where it gets too cold, the rainy season is one of the most enjoyable times for pet parents to spend with their dogs outdoor as long as some rules are followed.

Ask the Experts..


Paws and their stars

Be it bold ‘Khallas’ girl, petite Rajjo of Pinjar or smart Anita of ‘Don – The Chase Begins Again’… we loved Isha Koppikar in all her cameo roles. We saw her act…we love her dance…we like her style…what next. Yep! It’s her great compassion for our furry four-legged friends. Now let’s focus on her dog love only… so all tails up for Isha – a proud pet parent…woof!

Angels Together

A puppy party for kid-friendly dogs

Hosting a puppy party is a great way to help your new puppy begin enjoying and feeling at ease around kids. Puppies under five months old can learn a lot in an easy 30-minute play date. Here are a few tips.



My friend, my mentor… I will always love you!

‘WAGS’ For the wonderful vet

Extraordinary pooches


Swim for cure

Did you ever think that water can have a calming, soothing and therapeutic effect on your canine? Hydrotherapy for canines is gaining popularity not just for health benefits, but also for emotional and spiritual gains. Here’s more on this amazing therapy.


Pawsitive grooming

The importance of grooming is well known to keep your pooch good looking and healthy. But not all pooches would take to grooming sessions positively. Here’s how to keep the stress out.

Kids Korner



‘WAGS’ For the wonderful vet | June July 2011

I am: Abhishek DasguptaMy pet’s name: Pluto (Retriever male) & Liza (Retriever female)

My vet’s name: Dr Pritam Sarkar

Veterinary clinic: Agartala Government Veterinary Clinic, Agartala, Tripura

How I came across my vet: Recommended by a friend

Do I visit the vet for regular checkups or only in case of medical condition: Regular check-ups.

How often is my pet taken for checkups: Biweekly

How long I have been visiting my vet: Since last eight months

Toughest medical challenge faced by me and my pet: Pluto swallowed mosquito repellent coils when he was two months old.

Role played by my vet in helping to overcome it: My vet, on getting my phone call at 6 am, immediately arranged for antidote though it was raining heavily.

A special quality about my vet which strengthens my faith in him: He has a strong attachment with my pets and makes occasional visits to my house to enquire about their health.

A thank you note for my vet: I would thank him from the bottom of my heart for the care and devotion for my pets.


I am: Tanuja MMy pet’s name: ZAC

My vet’s name: Dr S Suresh

Veterinary clinic: Barking Fine, Anna Nagar, Chennai

How I came across my vet: Through a friend

Do I visit the vet for regular check-ups or only in case of medical condition: Regular check-ups

How often is my pet taken for check-ups: Once in two months

How long I have been visiting my vet: From the day ZAC came home.

Toughest medical challenge faced by me and my pet: Hip dysplasia

Role played by my vet in helping to overcome it: He explained the condition and referred to an orthologist Dr S Ayappan. ZAC was operated at the age of six months. He is doing very well now.

A special quality about my vet which strengthens my faith in him: His ability to handle the situation correctly and treating the animals patiently.

A thank you note for my vet: We are very much thankful to Dr Suresh and Dr Ayappan. We are happy that ZAC is relieved of pain and now he is playing happily.


I am: Aditi PandeyMy pet’s name: Zany

My vet’s name: Dr Anuj Agarwal, Veterinary clinic / hospit al: Rampur Road, Haldwani, Uttrakhand

How I came across my vet: Through a friend.

Do I visit the vet for regular check-ups or only in case of medical condition: Regular check ups

How often is my pet taken for check-ups: Once in two weeks

How long I have been visiting my vet: From the day Zany came home

Toughest medical challe nge faced by me and my pet: Hip dysplasia

Role played by my vet in helping to overcome it: He explained the condition and referred to an orthologist Dr Anuj Agarwal. Zany was operated at the age of five months. He is doing much well now.

A special quality about my vet which strengthens my faith in him: To handle the situation correctly and treat the pet patiently. A thank you note for my vet: We are very thankful to Dr Anuj Agarwal. We are happy that Zany is relieved of pain and now he is playing happily.


I am: Pramit Kumar DashMy pet’s name: Prince

My vet’s name: Dr Sanjay Jain

Veterinary clinic/hospital: Dr Jain Clinic, Agra Cantt, UP.

How I came across my vet: Through my dog breeder

Do I visit the vet for regular check-ups or only in case of medical condition: Regular check-ups

How often is my pet taken for check-ups: Monthly

How long I have been visiting my vet: Since last 15 months

Toughest medical challenge faced by me and my pet: When my dog took his first vaccine, he was suffering from fever; he did not eat anything and was unable to open his eyes.

Role played by my vet in helping to overcome it: I called him at odd hours and he was there to help.

A special quality about my vet which strengthens my faith in him: He loves dogs immensely and treats them like a newborn baby. When he is doing regular check-up, my dog can’t misbehave in front of him. He has different attraction in his eyes and his treatment.

A thank you note for my vet: We all are really very fortunate to have you as a family friend, advisor and vet. From the bottom of our heart, we would thank you….bow wow!

Ask the Expert | July Aug 2011

Q: My three-year-old son wants to adopt a Labrador. I will like to know how much space a grown up Labrador needs to feel comfortable and what costs are involved in maintaining a dog on a monthly basis. Also, do advice us about the temperament of the Labrador.
– Churamany Chetry, Assam

Dr KG Umesh: Labrador, being a large breed, cannot be cramped in a small apartment.ask the expertThey need plenty of space to run around and more importantly, the availability of open spaces nearby for exercise. The initial cost of your puppy must certainly be taken into account, but be aware that other costs continue for the rest of his life – the daily cost of feeding and veterinary visits (for both routine check-ups and unexpected problems), training, kennelling during holidays and regular grooming sessions, etc. Labrador is an affectionate and loyal companion. Dogs are social animals. They need a lot of attention, especially when young, and sufficient time must be set aside for their training, exercise and grooming.

Q: I have a two and half years old male Labrador, who is extremely friendly and docile. We are planning to bring home a second dog, probably a Saint Bernard or an English Mastiff. We want to ask you how to introduce them and manage them both- so they grow to like each other? Can you also recommend some other medium or large breeds?
– Nikhil, Palli

Dr KG Umesh: Whatever your reasons to add another dog to the family just be aware that bringing in a new dog is a huge change for an older dog – and unless you go about it the right way, it could create a lot of stress. Here are a few ways you can help make the process of introducing your older dog to a new dog less stressful. With the new puppy/dog in your lap/lease and your older dog on a leash held by someone else, let the older dog sniff, lick and explore the puppy/dog. A couple of minutes are more than enough time for this initial introduction. Remove the new puppy/dog from the room, and then lavish your older dog with attention and praise. On the second or third meeting, if all seems safe, allow the puppy/dog onto the floor, and monitor that situation carefully for a few minutes. Repeat this exercise at least twice daily until you’re comfortable that the two will get along. It’s not a good idea to leave your puppy/dog alone with your older dog. There should always be someone there to supervise. When you talk to each of the dogs, use a happy, friendly tone of voice. Never talk to them in a way that is threatening. Reward good behaviour with treats and/or compliments of “good dog!” Monitor their body language. And be sure to give him lots of individual attention so he’ll know that he still holds a special place in your heart and hasn’t been ‘replaced’.

Q: My five-month-old puppy has hookworms. What measures should I take with the puppy? Also, I have an infant and a toddler- what preventive measures to be taken with them?
– Monica, Kolkata

Dr KG Umesh: Keep the dog in good health. Go for regular examinations by a veterinarian as well as up-to-date vaccines and regular fecal exams to check for intestinal parasites. Ensure that the dog is free of fleas and ticks. Simply practice good hygiene at home – washing hands with soap and water after coming in contact with urine, feces or any bodily discharge from a dog. Feed a high-quality commercial dog food. Do not feed raw meat or untreated animal-based treats. Do not let the dog lick or sleep in the same bed. Always supervise children when they play with a pet. For most puppies, it is sufficient to worm routinely every 2-3 weeks until six months of age and then as advised by your veterinarian. There are many safe, effective products available which will eliminate these worms.

Q: I want to know if I can keep a female Labrador with a one-year-old Lhasa Apso. What is the correct age for spaying the female dog? Is it a complicated operation? Further I want to know whether the female Labrador will come into cycle or season or heat despite being operated.
– Ajay Kumar Khanduri, Delhi

Dr KG Umesh: Spaying is an irreversible means by which a dog is rendered sterile. The procedure entails complete removal of the uterus and ovaries in females – means no cycles. Surgery is preceded by a fasting period and requires general anaesthesia and hospitalisation. The incision must stay dry and suture removal is usually performed 7 to 10 days after surgery. There are also hospitals/clinics, which conduct spaying with Keyhole or Laparoscopy methods, with minimum invasive surgery and on outpatient basis. Complications are unusual but may include post surgical haemorrhage and infection, etc. Postoperative care includes restriction of exercise for a week, protection of the incision from contaminants, and daily monitoring of the incision for inflammation or discharge. Some suggest spaying as early as three months of age, while few spay after first season for female dogs. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you on what exactly is involved with the operation and also on the best time for it to be performed.

Q: My four-year-old black female Lab constantly gets urinary tract infections. Steffi also has major skin problems diagnosed as psoriases. Do advice what is best for dogs- home food or commercial food.
– Abhijit Bhagwat, Pune

Dr KG Umesh: Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to bacterial colonization of portions of the urinary tract that are normally sterile (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and proximal urethra) and is the most common infectious disease in dogs. Management of recurrent urinary tract infection is based on proper diagnosis of the underlying disease. This involves complete examination, blood tests and urine analysis including culture. This may help to identify some predisposing or perpetuating factors like diabetes, anatomical defects, urinary stones and systemic diseases. Ideally, patients with bacterial UTI that have been treated with antibiotics should have bacterial urine cultures periodically performed after completion of the course of antibiotics to ensure that the infection has been eliminated. There is no nutritional advantage to feeding home-made or raw foods over a commercially prepared pet food product, but there is the very real risk of illness. You may have to avoid only the particular ingredient in either home or commercial food that your dog has proven to have ‘allergy’ or adverse reactions (which are uncommon). The diet in fact plays an important role in management of some forms of urinary tract infections.

Just Fur Fun! | July Aug 10

All About My Buddy:

My Name is: Rosh

My Buddies’ Names Are: Nikki, Bruno & Renee

My Buddies’ Breed is Labrador Retrievers

My Buddies’ Colour is: Fawn

My Buddies’ Age Are: 5 Years (Nikki), 3 Years (Bruno) & 3 Years (Renee)

My Buddies’ Favourite Treats: They love to gorge on chew sticks & Ice Cream

My Buddies’ Funniest Habits: Every night after dinner they are the first ones to book their place on the bed which leaves me totally confused.

My Buddies’ First Love: Any day it’s me even though everyone at home loves three of them.

My Buddies’ Foods: They love anything made with chicken and simply adore any kind of fruits.

Celebrities My Buddies Resemble: They are the best celebrities around the house

Character Certificates to My Buddies Will Say: Always playful (Nickki & Bruno), Very very caring (Renee)

A Song Dedicated to My Buddies: Any song dedicated to friends’ Coz I love them so much

BUDDIES and ME: (Few of our favourite things)

List of Activities We Like Doing the Most: Playing outside with tha ball and goimng for the walks

What We Indulge Doing on Sundays: Going for long drives in car with their heads held outside the windows

What is the Best Tricks I Have Taught Them: They are too cute to be trained

Dogs & Pups, July Aug 2010 Issue

Ask the expert.. | July Aug 09

Q:Blacky, my seven-year-old mixed breed, weighs around 30-32 kg. She has become fat; her stomach is big and soft even though her food intake is less. She also drinks less water and her urine is yellowish in colour. Her periods are quite irregular and she has never been mated. Her liver tests are as follows: S.G.P.T: 112.0 U/L, Serum Creatinine: 0.60MG/DL and B. U. N.: 9.30 MG/DL. Please advise.
– Preeti, Indore

A:Neoplastic or Non-neoplastic disorders may cause abdominal enlargement in senior dogs. The information and lab report provided is inadequate to make specific suggestions on either diagnosis or treatment. Therefore I would suggest complete investigations to identify the underlying cause of her problem.

Q:My three-year-old Neo Mastiff, Sheeba has developed nail growth on her paw pad. I am sure it wasn’t there until three weeks ago. Is this common in dogs? What are the causes & remedies?
– Prakash Chomini, Bangalore

A:There are many causes of claw and claw fold disease in dogs. Numerous diagnostic techniques can be employed to narrow the list of differentials. Because many of these diseases have similar symptoms, biopsy of the claw is often necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis. I am not sure you are referring to extra claw or abnormal overgrowth of claw. There are dogs whose initial symptom is abnormal growth (onychodystrophy) of the claw. Once the diagnosis is established, an accurate prognosis can be given and a treatment plan is executed. A careful history is necessary to make a diagnosis of idiopathic onychodystrophy. Geriatric dogs with onychodystrophy may respond to gelatin or biotin supplementation.

Q:My Dachshund puppy is four months old. What kind of care should I take so that she does not develop any back problems?
– Gunjan Joshi, Nashik

A:The backbone of dogs is made up of bones called vertebrae. These bones protect the spinal cord, which extends from the brain to your pet’s tail. A pad of tough, fibrous tissue called disc is located between each vertebra. These intervertebral discs function as shock absorbers and stabilizers of the spine. In chondrodystrophic breeds like yours, the disc undergoes degeneration over time but many changes are present early in life. Disc degeneration is the main cause of the back problem but trauma is also a common cause. Dachshunds have the highest prevalence of slipped discs or disc diseases. Limiting running and jumping has been suggested to prevent occurrence, but the value of this has not been proven. Feeding balanced food and regular exercise will keep her fit and healthy. Make sure that she is not overweight or obese.

Q:My dog has motion sickness; each time I take him out in the car he throws up. Please advice how do I take care of this problem.
– Divya, Palampur

A:Travelling by car is easier for dogs; the safest way is in a crate. Many owners have discovered that an empty stomach is the best anti-illness prevention and they don’t feed their pets for up to five hours before a long car ride. It might also help to travel with your dog in his crate, if it can be securely fastened on the car’s seat or floor. The crate generally comforts your dog and gives him a place to lie down, which can reduce motion sickness. If your pet’s car sickness is truly motion related, your vet can also prescribe medications to fight travel illness. Be sure to stop frequently for potty breaks. Always keep something with your scent on it in your dog’s carrier. A piece of your clothing can be a reassuring reminder of home sweet home.

Q: I have two mixed breeds dogs, both males aged three and five years. I want to adopt a female dog. Please let me know:

  1. Will there be any dominance issues between my old dogs and new dog?
  2. When my female dog comes on heat, what should I do?
    Should I also neuter my male dogs?

– R Rao, Hubli

A:It’s important to realize that this is a huge change for other dogs—and unless you go about it the right way, it could create a lot of stress. Here are a few tips:

  1. Introduce her to other dogs gradually over period of few days with each dog on a leash. If all goes well up to this point, take the dogs for a walk, allowing them to sniff and investigate each other from time to time. Never talk to them in a way that is threatening. Reward good behaviour with treats/compliments of ‘good dog!’ and monitor their body language.
  2. If you don’t intend to breed your female dog, then you should seriously consider neutering. The most common methods of contraception are ovariohysterectomy (spaying) in female dogs and vasectomy or castration in males. Such procedures eliminate heat periods, objectionable behaviour, including spotting of blood in dogs, and the attraction of male animals. Spaying and neutering can reduce the risk of several different conditions later in life.