Preventing and managing dog bites

Dog bites are in no condition simply wounds, but are in fact medical emergencies that need to be attended to as soon as possible. Here’s how to prevent and manage dog bites.

Preventing dog bite

  • Never approach an unfamiliar dog.
  • Never run from a dog or scream in the presence of a dog.
  • Be still, ‘like a tree’, when approached by a dog.
  • If knocked down, become ‘like a log’ and using your arms hide your face and ears.
  • Children should never play with a dog without an adult present.
  • Immediately report stray dog or dogs with unusual behaviour.
  • Avoid direct eye contact with a dog.
  • Do not disturb a dog who is eating, sleeping or caring for her puppies.
  • Do not pet a dog without letting him first sniff you.
  • Tell children to report a dog bite to an adult immediately.
  • Educate the children and adults to remain calm when threatened by a dog.
  • If a dog perceives no movement, it will lose interest and go away.

Causes of dog bite

  • The incidence of serious and fatal dog bites has been seen mainly because of:
  • Involvement of the victim in trying to harm or steal the pups of a dog.
  • Involvement of the victim in provoking the dogs by some mischievous activity.
  • General carelessness of the victim, while approaching or handling a dog.
  • Allowing small children to play unsupervised with the pet dogs.

Dangers associated with dog bite

Only 15-20% of dog bite wounds become infected. Crush injuries, puncture wounds and hand wounds are more likely to become infected than scratches or tears. Infection tends to develop within 24-36 hours of the injury. However the main threat of dog bite is risk of acquiring ‘Rabies’, a disease which if develops always ends fatally. Till now there has been no suitable cure found for rabies, only pre/post exposure vaccines have been developed which help to prevent the occurrence of the disease but are of no use once the disease has developed. Other complications include infectious diseases such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and septicemia. Most infected dog bite wounds yield polymicrobial organisms. Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common aerobic organisms, occurring in 20-30% percent of infected dog bite wounds.

Some of the medical conditions associated with a high risk of infection after a dog bite include:

  • Chronic disease
  • Chronic edema of the extremity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Immunosuppression
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Previous mastectomy
  • Prosthetic valve or joint
  • Splenectomy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus


Treatment of dog bite

Treatment with prophylactic antibiotics for three to seven days is appropriate for dog bite wounds, unless the risk of infection is low or the wound is superficial. Amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium is the antibiotic of choice for a dog bite. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, doxycycline is an acceptable alternative, except for children younger than eight years and pregnant women. When compliance is a concern, daily intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone are appropriate.

Whether a person has received pre-exposure vaccination or not, anyone exposed to the rabies virus MUST receive post-exposure treatment.

(Dr F H Dedmari, BVSc & AH, is currently doing master in Veterinary Surgery & Radiology at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kashmir, SKUAST-K).

Preventing your canine from heat stroke

Now that the summers are in, it has become crucial to take extra  care of our pets. Like humans, dogs can also suffer from heat stroke. Dr. Gautam Unny gives tips to prevent heat stoke in our canines.
We all try our best to combat summer hazards and we should give equal attention to our four-legged friends as they do not sweat and cool their bodies like us. Even a 10-minute lock up in a car on a sunny afternoon can be life threatening for them.
Case file
(Dona’s heat dilemma)
Dona is an eleven-year-old German Spitz who miraculously recovered from an acute attack of heat stroke. She was going to Saharanpur with her owner Col. Sharma, when she was left in the carfor about ten minutes. It was aday in August, when the temperatures were soaring and to add to the distress, the humidity was stifling. Col. Sharma, after about two hours drive felt that it was necessary for everybody in the car to take a break and therefore stopped the car under a shady tree and went to fetch some cold water for Dona. To ensure that she did not jump out of the carand follow him on the congested highway, he pulled up the windows.
To his utter dismay when he came back to the car, Dona lay practically unconscious, finding it difficult to breathe. He immediately poured cold water on her and fed her some of the ice cream he had also brought back with him. After some time, Dona did recover and the family then made a practically uneventful journey back home. During the journey she was shown to a vet who administered some injections to control her motion sickness. She however continued to throw up sporadically all through her journey. The subsequent day saw Dona refuse food and the frequency of vomiting increased. She could not even retain water and therefore Col. Sharma rushed her to our clinic.
Dona was running abnormally high temperature and all symptoms indicated that she had suffered from a heat stroke. She was required to undergo some blood tests but in the meantime, she was started on intravenous fluids to stabilise her. The results that followed left Col. Sharma totally flabbergasted! The Creatinine levels that indicate kidney trouble were grossly elevated and were at 7.2 (Normal 1.5 g/dl). What was astounding was the severity of the sudden damage to the kidneys.
Dona took a full month to recover, but not all dogs are as lucky. What has to be understood is that this problem can be totally circumvented by some proper planning.
How heat
stroke occurs
The brain regulates the monitoring of temperature so that the body temperature neither goes too far below or above normal and this is called homeostasis. The abnormally high rise in temperatures beyond physiological limits due to external factors like high temperature and humidity is called Hyperthermia. In a case of heat stroke, the animal has temperatures beyond 108 degrees Fahrenheit (102 is normal). At this stage, the animal collapses, has rapid breathing, the mucus membranes of the eye are brick red, could vomit or have loose motions. Some animals also have seizures. In the last stages of heat stroke, the dog respires slowly with deep breathing, and this is not a favourable prognostic sign.
Other problems associated with
heat stroke
The reason why some animals who recover from heat stroke get renal failure is that the body in a case of heat stroke suffers from a total circulatory shock. Adequate blood does not flow to the vital organs and the kidneys do not get adequate supply of blood for a short period. This is enough to cause them to get damaged. If an animal who has suffered from a heat stroke does not pass urine (anuria) or less urine (oliguria), then he should be rushed to a vet. If after treatment, the pet begins to pass urine, then the signs are favourable. Dogs who do not respond to treatment even after the administration of diuretics (drugs that enhance urination) may not recover.
Preventing heat stroke
So, what can the guardian do to prevent this potential complication?

  • Never leave a pet in a closed and ill-ventilated area where air circulation is low. A car with rolled up windows is one such place.
  • Provide cool and fresh water at all times.
  • On a long journey, take short breaks and again ensure adequate hydration of the pet.
  • The first sign that a pet is feeling too hot is when he pants too much. Remember, as dogs do not sweat too much they cannot cool themselves off as humans do. A cold water dousing will immediately lower the body temperature.
  • If at home, dip the entire pet in a tub of water or keep ice packs on his body.
  • Try and make him drink water but if he does not or throws up, get to the vet fast.
  • Emergencies do not come forewarned and therefore keep your vets mobile number handy.

The aim is to get the temperature back to normal in the shortest possible time and at the same time ensuring that it does not go far below normal. So, to ensure a happy summer just follow the tips mentioned above to keep your pet free of this potential threat.
(Dr. Gautam Unny is a gold medallist from the Madras Veterinary College and has been treating pets for over a decade now. He has also authored ‘A manual on dog care’ published by Rupa & Co. He can be contacted at 011-22153622 or 9810053451 at A-150, Anand Vihar, Delhi –110092.)   

Preventing your pet from poisoning

What appears absolutely harmless to you can be extremely poisonous to your pet dogs. Dr Gautam Unny advises on how to prevent your dog from getting poisoned and what you should do, if unfortunately your dog consumes a poisonous substance.

Snappy is a healthy nine- year-old Cocker Spaniel.

Anyone who sees him ambling during his daily walks would hardly be able to understand the depth of his owner’s anxiety a few weeks ago. During a routine visit to our clinic, his owner Ms. Pal casually told us of Snappy having too many ticks. As is the usual procedure, we informed her about the benefits of a tick bath, educated her on the correct procedure and finally gave her the medication. The next day afternoon an anxious Ms. Pal called up at the clinic that her pet was vomiting and very restless. On getting a further history, she told us that he had been given a tick bath half an hour ago. Snappy was immediately summoned to the clinic and, as was suspected, treated for organo-phosphate poisoning – the drug used in tick baths. The recovery was uneventful and all was well till the evening when again the owner called up to tell us that the pet was sick again. He was again treated till he recovered. Once again post midnight Snappy fell ill. This time apart from giving him the usual antidotes, we also gave him a good shampoo bath. Much to the relief of his owner, Snappy was normal and relaxed thereafter. His recurrence of the poisoning was because he used to lick himself only to get poisoned again, after his recovery.

So, from this case, we can learn quite a few important lessons. The first and the foremost is that if you suspect poisoning, try and identify the source. Next, remove the source as soon as possible i.e. if the poisoning is due to something on the skin then wash the skin well. Lastly, get the name of the antidote as most are mentioned on the labels of the poison.

So what are the common substances that can poison your pet within the household? We begin with the sweetest and most common poison given inadvertently to the pet. Chocolates, yes they can poison your pet if given in high doses. The bitter chocolates are more toxic than other sweet versions. The reason why it occurs is that chocolates have a product called Theobromine that can cause toxicity in dogs, especially pups. In case you suspect that your pet has stolen some chocolate, then rush it to your vet or induce vomiting as soon as possible. Another common poison is rat poison, especially the modern day varieties that are supposedly safe for pets. These can also cause problems and the best thing to do is to take the pet to the clinic with the antidote that is given on the wrapper. Since these poisons slowly kill the pet, the owner may not realize the intensity of the problem till it is too late.

I have already mentioned the dangers that a harmless procedure like a tick bath can produce. The dog becomes restless, salivates profusely, vomits frequently, tries to eat grass to relieve the discomfort in its stomach etc. So is there a way out? Well-educated clients will give the tick bath personally to the pet rather than allowing the domestic help in the house to do the same. I take this opportunity to sketch the basic way to give a tick bath. After wetting the dog well, the anti-tick medication is diluted in the precise dose indicated by the vet. Then the pet’s mouth is tied up or muzzled. The medication is applied all over the body and the pet is taken for a long walk to dry itself in the sun. Next it is dried using a thick towel until the pet is totally dry. If a gap of half an hour is provided then there is little danger of toxicity. In case the owner cannot wait until the pet is totally dry then he is advised to wash off the medication.

I prefer to leave the medicine on so that there is some element of residual effect of the anti-tick preparation.

Another case I clearly remember is of a Labrador, Scheffer, who had a capricious appetite. He loved to chew on anything that he could find. Once he ate some blood pressure medication of his owner. He ended up rather sick after vomiting several times. But in all probabilities this is what saved him. Since Scheffer vomited after eating the pills, he brought out most of it. In case he had retained it, the large dose would probably have been toxic to him. Vomiting can be induced in a pet to overcome the effect of poisonous substance. Consult your vet immediately with details of the substance consumed. Again there are some situations where we do not advise inducing the pet to vomit. The first is when the pet has taken in some acid or alkali, a sharp object, is dull and depressed or has eaten tranquilizers. Here if you induce vomiting then more damage will occur than any good.

So, what is the best-integrated approach to handle a case of suspected poisoning? The first thing to do is not to panic or get hysterical and instead, call the vet. This way the vet is prepared to tackle the emergency when you reach him. In case you have the remaining poison, pack it carefully and take it to the vet. If the vet tells you to induce vomiting, do so with the techniques suggested by your vet. Never try anything on very aggressive and nervous animals as they may bite out of fear or anxiety. In case you have the wrapper, get the recommended antidote just in case your vet does not have it at the clinic. Vets cannot store all the possible antidotes, as the list of possible toxins and poisons is endless. Also do not waste your time searching for these at the local chemist and instead try finding them at bigger hospitals in the neighbourhood.

What then are the chances of recovery of a pet that has been poisoned? This depends on many factors including the kind of poison, its purity, the length of time it has been in contact, the speed with which it has been treated and whether the poison is still in contact with the body. The treatment has generally three protocols that include aiding in elimination of the poison by washing the pet, making it vomit or by giving laxatives. The second line of treatment includes supportive therapy by helping the animal cope with effects like dehydration, convulsions, loose motions or allergies to the poison. The last step is to administer the exact antidote and it is here that the owner plays the most crucial role as he alone can tell the vet about the exact poison ingested. Since many poisonings mimic each other unless the owner is specific, treatment may be delayed or too late.

It is also important that a good follow-up is maintained in a pet that has recently eaten a poison. In some cases, the poisons are cumulative and will slowly damage the internal organs, especially the liver and kidneys. Therefore, it is better to get regular blood profiles of these organs done at weekly or bi-weekly intervals for a few weeks after some unfortunate poisoning case. Corrosive poisons like petroleum products may damage the sensitive mucus membrane linings of the stomach and tongue. In such cases, there might be frequent vomiting for a few weeks till the linings heal. Here the pet may need parental nutrition for a few days.

Personally, I have seen homeopathy to be a rather good aid in cases of poisoning. Recently a distraught owner brought a dog to our clinic. He had got his pet treated for a common venereal tumour only to find that it had stopped eating and the tongue and lips were red and inflamed. After trying conventional treatment for a few days, we resorted to homeopathy for the dog, though stable, still retained some signs of nervousness and hysteria. A local homeopath gave her a few doses of a drug called Arnica, and to my surprise within a day, the dog was substantially better. There are a large number of drugs that are given to dogs after poisoning and your vet with the consultation of a good homeopath will be able to give you some medication if the need arises.

And finally I wish to highlight some of the common poisons that are easily found around the house that the pet can ingest or can fall on their skin. As mentioned earlier – chocolates, common salt, rat poisons, insecticides for plants, paints, varnishes, tick and flea powders and lotions, human medications etc. Dogs that have a habit of scavenging may ingest some, while others can get accidentally applied on the skin when the pet rolls on grass sprayed with an insecticide. Dogs are not the best judges of what should be eaten and what is best left untouched. For all that they do for us; the bare minimum we can do is to keep the house free of these potentially dangerous elements.

(Dr. Gautam Unny is a practicing veterinarian in Delhi and can be contacted at 011-2215 3622 or 98100- 53451. He is the author of the bestseller ‘A Manual on Dog Care’ by Rupa & Co. available at all leading stores. To order the book, contact Rupa & Co at 011-23278586 & 011- 2327 2161.)