FAQs on the role of nutrients for Skin health

Here are FAQs on the role of nutrients for your pooch’s healthy skin…

Skin, body’s largest organ, is a natural protector against toxic substances, dehydration, infection and ultraviolet light. Skin health is reflective of overall health status of pets. Healthy skin is flexible, without scabs, white flakes or any red areas. Skin of dogs and cats is sensitive and is vulnerable to multiple infections.

What are the important nutrients for good skin health in pets?
Good nutrition can have a positive effect on an animal’s skin and coat. Proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are important nutrients required for healthy skin and coat in dogs and cats. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) play a major role in the maintenance of healthy coat and skin of dogs and cats, and are called essential fatty acids as they cannot be synthesised in the body. Thus, EFAs must be obtained through diet or supplementation.
What causes dull skin and poor coat in pets?
Deficiency of nutrients especially fatty acids, vitamins and minerals causes dullness in skin and loss of shine in the coat of pets.
What are the two important EFAs for pets?
The two most important EFAs commonly required by pets are Omega 3 and Omega 6. Omega 3 fatty acids include EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docohexaenoic Acid), and Omega 6 fatty acids include Linoleic Acid (LA) and Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA).

What is the role of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids in pets?  
Fatty acids play many important roles in pet’s body, of which few important ones are:

  • Omega 3 fatty acids are necessary structural components of cell membranes and maintain cell membrane permeability, thereby protecting loss of nutrients and entry of infectious agents into the skin.
  • Omega 6 fatty acids help in maintaining skin and coat in good condition.
  • Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids are precursors for eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins that prevent inflammation.
  • Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids regulate epidermal (outer most layer of skin) proliferation, thus promotes keratinisation leading to rapid wound healing.
  • Omega fatty acids help in improving the heart health, improve the memory and trainability

What are the common conditions in pets where fatty acid supplementation is required?
Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation is important in pets suffering with allergic dermatitis, poor immune system, and inflammatory disorders like arthritis, etc.
Omega 6 fatty acids help in maintaining the integrity of skin and are responsible for the lusture and sheen in the healthy hair coat.

What is the role of vitamins and minerals in pet skin health?
Vitamins and minerals are important in maintaining various metabolic pathways in the body and healthy skin in pets. Deficiency or excess of either leads to skin problems.

  • Vitamin A is involved in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and is important in keratinisation process and either excess or deficiency leads to hyperkeratinisation, scaly skin, loss of hair, and increased susceptibility to microbial infections in pets.
  • Vitamin E as it is involved in fatty acid utilisation.
  • Zinc and Selenium are two important minerals that promote wound healing and act as antioxidants respectively.

(Dr Ritesh Sood is Product Manager, Animal Health Division, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bengaluru).

Decipher the role of SALT in your pooch’s diet

Something as simple as salt can become a matter of great concern for your beloved pet. Salt is nothing but sodium and chloride, but there are innumerable myths surrounding salt in dog’s diet. So, grab your cup of coffee and embark on this enlightening journey.

Dr. Sunita Patel

Why salt is important?
“Sodium chloride is required to main tain blood pressure, blood volume, transmission of nerve impulses and maintain the acid base balance in the body. Sodium aids in the transfer of nutrients to cells and removal of waste products. While, chloride is required for production of hydrochloric acid for digestion of protein in stomach,” said Dr Sunita Patel. Dr Gautam Anand told, “The excretion of sodium and chloride is a rather slow process in dogs, they need very limited amount of salt in the daily diet.”
Humans lose a great amount of salt by sweating. For those of you who didn’t know, dogs sweat from their paws and nose. Dr Prabhjot said, “Since dogs don’t sweat as much as we humans do, their salt intake should also be limited.”
Problems related to high salt and low salt diet
We all know that excess of everything is bad, but there can also be a problem if the required intake amount is not met.
Problems related to high salt intake: “While, high sodium or hypernatremia causes Untitled-14increased thirst, confusion, disorientation, seizures and coma. It can also result in vomiting, diarrhoea and water loss through urine,” told Dr Sunita Patel.  “Excessive intake of either of these two minerals is filtered through kidneys and released into urine. Seizures, blindness, dehydration, loss of appetite and sometimes death are some of the signs of sodium chloride toxicity in dogs. Always ensure your dog has access to clean drinking water,” told Dr Makarand Chavan.
Problems related to low salt intake: A low sodium diet may also cause a lot of problems. “Low sodium or hyponatremia causes lethargy, weakness, seizures and coma,” explained Dr Sunita Patel. “Difficulties in maintaining water balance, fatigue, dry and flaky skin, hair loss and exhaustion are some of the effects of a low sodium diet,” said Dr Gautam.
Dr Makarand Chavan told, “Prolonged diarrohea or severe vomiting could be major reasons of such deficiency and it is advisable to consult a veterinarian before the condition gets serious.”
Home-cooked food
What about home-cooked food? Is it balanced? “Home-cooked food is difficult to balance the protein, carbohydrate and fats required by body and needs supplementation with vitamins and minerals,” told
Dr Sunita Patel. “Their intake should be a balance of animal protein and fat, carbohydrates. Home meals must contain a balance  of cooked meat without bones (70 percent) with carbohydrates like rice or wheat  with certain vegetables like carrots, beans, pumpkin, bottle gourd (30 percent) – all cooked together,” she added.
“Home-cooked food can provide good nutrition, if rightly formulated by qualified veterinary nutritionist,” told Dr Manvir. There are a lot of dogs who are given home cooked food. In such cases it becomes the pet parent’s responsibility to see that the dog is getting appropriate nutrition. It is important you consult the vet for a proper diet chart and preparation of the same.
“The market is full of health supplements. If your pet eats only home-cooked food, then it is advisable that you give these supplements that would cater to their daily requirement of minerals and vitamins,”
added Dr Prabhjot.
Dog food
“Most of the responsible pet parents offer commercial pet food to their pets. They should ensure what they are feeding to their pets should meet the requirements of the pet. It can be ensured by seeing the label of nutrient composition at packet and consulting your veterinary nutritionist/veterinarian,” told Dr Manvir Singh.

On Dog Food
“Pet food has come into the market after a lot of research. It is a totally balanced meal,” said Dr Sunita Patel.

Foods that are a strict ‘NO – NO’
Cheese, bacon, ham, chips and sausages are some foods that have an excess amount of sodium. Thus you must always refrain from giving these to your pet. In case your pooch has some kidney, liver or heart disease there are chances that your vet may recommend a low sodium diet. This is done to decrease blood pressure and avoid accumulation of excess body fluids.
PS – Don’t fall prey to those soulful eyes, table scarps should go in the dustbin and not into your pet’s tummy. Be careful of what you make your pet eat. It’s your responsibility.

On human food
“Salty foods upset the electrolyte balance and table scraps are not advised,” explained Dr Sunita Pate

Salt Facts

Importance of salt: It helps in maintaining the balance between intra and extracellular fluids of body. It also helps in transferring nutrients to cells and removal of wastes. Na and Cl play important role in regulating blood pressure.
How much salt is required in dog’s diet? Almost all foods contain NaCl and it is integral part of commercial pet foods also. The minimum daily requirement of sodium (Na) for dogs is rather lower than Chloride (Cl) and not particularly challenging to meet. AAFCO dog nutrient profiles which might be viewed as somewhat representative of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), list a recommended Na content of 0.2 percent on dry matter basis for both growth and maintenance OR 0.86 gm per 1000 kcal ME (Metabolisable Energy) for growth and 0.17 gm per 1000 Kcal ME for adult maintenance.
Problems related to low/high sodium intake: Problems related to low salt intake are extremely rare because all foods contain sodium chloride (salt). It may occur in case of severe diarrhoea and vomition that may lead to excess loss of Na and Cl from the body. Symptoms may include dehydration, disorientation and stupor. In case of your pet is suffering from certain ailments related to kidneys, liver and heart, you must take advice from a veterinarian who can recommend decreasing sodium intake for the pet. This will help decrease the pet’s high blood pressure or accumulation of excessive body fluid.
If salt or salty food is ingested in large quantity and sufficient drinking water is not available to dog, then salt toxicity may occur. Symptoms of salt toxicity are dehydration, vomition, seizures, blindness, loss of appetite, thriftiness and death if not treated. Generally extra salt (NaCl) is extracted from body through urine.

(With inputs from Dr Sunita Patel, Veterinary Surgeon, All India Animal Welfare Association and President, Pet Practitioners Association of Mumbai; Dr Gautam Anand, Dr Anand’s Pets Clinics, New Delhi;  Dr Prabhjot, Triguna Dog Clinics, New Delhi; Dr Manvir Singh, MVSc(IVRI) and Veterinary Nutritionist, College of Veterinary Sciences, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand and Dr Makarand Chavan, BVSc &AH, MVSc, Dogs and Cats Veterinary Clinic, Mumbai).